Clouds of War- Beginnings of World War II - Waverly

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Transcript Clouds of War- Beginnings of World War II - Waverly

American History
Unit II- U.S. Foreign Affairs
World War II
Chapter 26- Clouds of War
Section 1- Foreign Affairs 1933-1939
Reading Quiz
Conditions in German that
paved the way for Hitler.
• The people had little faith in the weak existing democratic
government.
• A multiparty system hindered the growth of a strong “center”
party.
• Fear of the Communists was widespread (this is very important).
• Many Germans wanted to avenge the defeat they had suffered in
World War I.
• Germany was plagued by unemployment, severe inflation, and
depression- all of which the Nazis promised to remedy.
• The German middle class hungered for stability, even at the cost of
liberty.
• The police and military high command offered no serious
opposition when the Nazis used strong arm methods to gain
control.
Threats to Peace
• The rise of Hitler
• Austrian drop out and failed
artist
• WWI- German soldier
wounded and gassed.
• Joins Social Workers party
and reshapes it into NAZI.
• Scapegoat- jews
• 1923 Beer Hall Putsch in
Bavaria- Hitler goes to jail
and writes Mein Kampf. 800
page Nazi bible
• “Big Lie”
• Third Riech- Germany that
would last a thousand years.
Japanese-American relations
• Military leaders had taken over
rule in Japan.
• 1931 Japan seizes Manchuria.
• 1937 attacks China, the bombing
of Shanghai and the Nanjing
Massacre. Western Democracies
spoke up but did not act for fear
of starting war.
• Japan sinks US gunboat Panay
on the Yangtze River in China.
Japan apologizes and paid $2
million.
• Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity
Sphere- 1940
FDR and neutrality
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FDR warned America about war and that
the US could not be a mere spectator. He
wanted quarantine, but did not get it
Pacifists- never go to war for any reason.
Isolationists- fence off the New World and
keep the war out.
5th Columnists- German agents operating
inside the United States waiting to become
active.
Nazi sympathizers- Italian and German
immigrants and American Nazi.
Defeatists- We can not possible defeat them.
(Lindbergh)
Hate England Crowd – such as the Irish.
Business as usual- businesses profiting from
the war. Arms manufacturers and bankers
profit either way.
Appeasers- Give in to Hitler’s demands
U.S. Neutrality Acts
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Tydings-McDuffie Act 1934- provided for
the independence of the Philippines by
1946.
1935- FDR recommends the US join the
World Court- isolationists say no.
1935-1936 Neutrality Acts- US citizens
travel at own risk to Belligerent nations,
shipment of arms barred to Spain during
civil war (this helped the fascists.).
1937- Sales to belligerents, but only on
“cash and carry” basis.- law embargoed
munitions and possibly other exports the
President saw fit.
1937 amendment would have prevented
Congress from declaring war without first
submitting the question to a popular vote.
It was never submitted.
These laws did not block the world from
going to war.
Hitler comes to power
• Hitler and Nazi’s take over
gov’t
• German parliament with
many parties. Split
• World Depression
• Government made him
chancellor before he
could take over on his
own.
• Hitler master of radio.
• Thugs, SA and SS
• Propoganda
• Hitler is a german god.
• Concentration Camps
Other world powers
• Stalin - USSR
• Labor camps in Siberia
• Oppression and purges
• farm takeovers
• Japan- army leaders take over
control bent on expanding the
country.
• Japan in Korea and Manchuria
• Italians- Fascist Mussolini
want to create a new Roman
Empire.
• 1935- Invasion of Ethiopia
• Italians and Germans support
Spain- Fascist Franco.
FDR - Good Neighbor Policy
• A good neighbor is one who
respects himself and his
neighbors.
• Our new Latin American
policy
• 1934- Cuba sovereign
nation
• 1938- Mexico expropriates
all of the oil fields in
Mexico. Settled peacefully.
• U.S. to treat Latin
Americans as equals.
SIGNIFICANT EVENTS IN GERMANY: 1933-1945
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1933:
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Jan. 30- Hitler appointed Chancellor of Germany
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Apr 1- National boycott of Jewish stores
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Apr 26- Creation of the Gestapo, secret police.
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Nov 12- Reichstag elections: 93% vote for Nazis
1934:
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Aug 19- Hitler's powers extended by vote of people.
1935:
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Sept 15-Nuremberg Laws deprive Jews of German
citizenship. Marriage between Jews and other
Germans is made illegal.
1936:
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Oct 25- Alliance formed with Italy and Japan
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Dec 1- Law passed making Hitler Youth a State
agency Hitler takes the Rhineland.
1938:
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March - Hitler invades and annexes Austria.
Occupies the Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia.
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Nov 9- "Kristallnacht"-Jewish synagogues and stores
Destroyed. Jews fined heavily for damages. Jews
expelled from German schools.
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Dec 6- Non-aggression pact signed with Germany
and France
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1939:
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March- Hitler seizes the rest of the Czechoslovakia.
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Aug 23-Soviet-German non aggression pact signed.
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Sept 1-Germany invades Poland, start WW II.
1940:
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German Jews beginning to be taken into custody and
deported to concentration camps.
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Apr 9- Hitler invades Denmark and Norway.
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June 14- Hitler seizes Paris and controls all of France.
1941:
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Beginning of the "Final Solution". Jews may not leave
their homes without police permission.
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June 22- Germany invades Russia.
1942: t
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Jews forbidden to use public transportation.
1943:
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Feb 2- Soviet army takes Stalingrad.
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March- Germany loses control of N. Africa.
1944
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June 6- D-Day - Allies land in France.
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Dec 16 Battle of the Bulge, German last try.
1945:
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Apr 30- Hitler commits suicide.
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May 8- END OF WW II
1946: Nuremburg Trials
Hitler on the march
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Lebensraum- “Living Room”, -all people of
German blood in Austria, Czechoslovakia, and
Poland.
1938- March- Hitler invades Austria then
Sudetenland. The Czech hoped other nations
would aid them- did not happen.
Munich Conference- Chamberlain of England,
Daladier of France met with Hitler and
Mussolini at Munich, Germany. Sept. 28, 1938
they agreed to dismember Czechoslovakia and
appease Hitler. Chamberlains said, “Peace in
our time.”
November 1938- Hitler increases brutal
treatment of Jews.
March 1939- Hitler seizes rest of
Czechoslovakia- Appeasement failed.
April 7, 1939- Italy invades Albania.
Isolationists in Congress still block all of FDR
attempts to aid the allies.
Problems with Japan
July 26, 1939- Because of the
siezure of Manchuria by
Japan in 1931m the attack
of China in 1937 and the
Panay Incident, the U.S. tells
Japan:
• U.S. would end the JapaneseAmerican Commercial Treaty
• U.S. will stop sale of war
materials to Japan. Japan
was invading China with
those arms.
War Comes to Europe
The Munich appeasement made
Hitler want more.
Signs as Non-aggression pact
with Russia- which secretly
gave Germany western
Poland.
Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler invades
Poland.
Sept. 3, 1939 England and
France declare war on
Germany.
Sept. 17, 1939 Stalin’s armies
U.S. Reaction- Neutrality
FDR does not ask the
American People to be
neutral in thought and deed.
He invoked the Neutrality Act
of 1937.
FDR got Congress to pass the
Neutrality Act of 1939 which
helped the allies by
repealing the arms
embargo.