World War II

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Transcript World War II

World War II
World War II:
What?
War involving nearly all the nations of the world…
AGAIN
When?
1939-1945
US Involvement 1941-1945
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Why?
Failure of the Treaty of Versailles
Weak League of Nations
Aggression by totalitarian powers
Rearmament
Anti-Communism
Belief in Fascism
Isolationism
Hitler’s ideology written in Mein Kampf :
Anti-Semitism
Lebensraum
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Alliances
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Axis Powers:
Allied Powers:
Germany
Italy
Japan
France
Great Britain
USSR
United States
Where?
Atlantic and Pacific Theatres
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Who: Major leaders of the war- the Allies
Franklin D. Roosevelt-U.S. President
Joseph Stalin-Soviet dictator
Winston Churchill-British prime minister
Harry Truman-US President after death of Roosevelt
Dwight D. Eisenhower-U.S. general
Douglas MacArthur-U.S. general
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George Marshall-U.S. general
Who: Major leaders of the war- The Axis
Benito Mussolini- Italian Dictator
Adolf Hitler-Nazi dictator of Germany
Hideki Tojo-Japanese general
Hirohito-Emperor of Japan
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Events that lead to War:
Pre WWII Aggression
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Japanese Aggression
1931: Invade Manchuria
1933: Invade rest of China
1937: ‘Rape of Nanking’
1940: Occupy French Indochina (Vietnam)
1941: Take Dutch East Indies (Indonesia)
Dec. 7, 1941: Pearl Harbor
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Japanese Aggression
Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931
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Japanese Aggression
Why invade Manchuria?
The need for new markets and new sources of
raw materials such as coal, oil, bauxite (for
aluminum), and iron ore led Japan to invade
and annex Manchuria, renaming it Manchukuo.
China protested to the League of Nations, but
the League was not able to stop the aggression.
This failure showed the world that the League
could not maintain world peace.
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Vocabulary
Fascism: ideology or attitude that favors dictatorial
government, centralized control of private enterprise,
repression of all opposition, and extreme nationalism.
Marxist-Leninist Communism version of a classless
society in which capitalism is overthrown by a workingclass revolution that gives ownership and control of wealth
and property to the state
Communism (beginning with Stalin): any system of
government in which a single, usually totalitarian, party
holds power, and the state controls the economy
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Pre-War Italy
Benito Mussolini
Fascist dictator of
Italy from 1922 to
1943
Centralized all power
in himself as the
leader.
Ultimately in alliance
with Hitler's Germany
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il duce
Pre-War: Italy invades Ethiopia, 1935
Emperor Haile Selassie
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Italy’s successful war against Ethiopia in 1935-1936
was opposed by the League of Nations, so Mussolini
was forced to seek an alliance with Nazi Germany,
which had withdrawn from the League in 1933.
Pre-War Germany
1933-Hitler became Chancellor of Germany.
He was convinced the Western powers had no
intention of using force to maintain the Treaty
of Versailles.
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Spanish Civil War-Italian Involvement
The Spanish Civil War: 1936 - 1939
Francisco Franco
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Italian troops in Madrid
Italian intervention in 1936-1939 on the side of
General Francisco Franco in the Spanish Civil War
ended any possibility of Italian reconciliation with
France and Britain. Italy now had to side with
Germany.
Spanish Civil War-German Involvement
Why did Hitler aid Franco?
Geopolitics; he hoped for the
establishment of another
authoritarian regime on the
border of his great enemy,
France.
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He used Spain as a testingground for German military
forces, and particularly his
Luftwaffe, which in 1937
bombed Guernica, the first
time a European city was
flattened by area bombing.
Hitler And Franco
Spanish Civil War
“Guernica” by Pablo Picasso
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Guernica shows the tragedies of war and the suffering it
inflicts upon individuals, particularly innocent civilians.
Hitler’s Initial Goal for Lebensraum
Hitler wanted all German-speaking nations in
Europe to be a part of Germany.
He wanted to reunite Germany with his native
homeland, Austria.
Under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles
Germany and Austria were forbidden to be
unified.
Hitler also wanted control of the ethnic
Germans within an area of Czechoslovakia
called the Sudetenland.
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German Aggression
In March 7, 1936, Hitler sent German troops into
the Rhineland, which was a demilitarized area.
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Italian and German Alliance
Rome-Berlin Axis, 1936
The “Pact of Steel”
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Japanese - German - Italian Alliance
Anti-Comintern Pact
Agreement between Germany and Japan Nov. 25,
1936 forming an alliance against communism.
Italy joins Nov. 6, 1937
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The Austrian Anschluss
Hitler pursued a union with
Austria, or Anschluss.
12th March 1938:
German troops marched into
Austria unopposed. Hitler now
had control of Austria.
A month later, Hitler held a
rigged referendum. The results
showed that the Austrian
people approved of German
control of their country.
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The world witnessed the horrors of the German
destruction in Spain.
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Czechoslovakia Crisis-1938
Czechoslovakia Becomes Part of the Third Reich
Hitler invaded Czechoslovakia, and made a Nazi
puppet state
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The Munich Pact-1938
Britain, France, Germany and Italy met to
address the Czechoslovakia Crisis.
The goal of the leaders was to avoid war.
Hitler promised that Czechoslovakia would be
his “last territorial demand in Europe.”
Sudetenland given to Germany in exchange for
this promise.
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The Sudetenland
The Sudetenland
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The Munich Pact-1938
British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain
Now we have “peace for our time!”
Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.
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Appeasement
After the Munich Conference, Prime Minister
Chamberlain of Britain did not issue a strong
statement in opposition to Hitler’s actions.
Chamberlain believed Hitler would not violate
anymore agreements.
Appeasement: the political strategy of pacifying
a potentially hostile nation in the hope of
avoiding war, often by granting concessions
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Nazi-Soviet Nonagression Pact
Hitler was afraid of an alliance between the West and the
Soviet Union.
In August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union signed the
Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact.
Germany and USSR promised not to attack each other.
Hitler offered Stalin eastern Poland and the Baltic states.
Hitler knew that eventually he would break the pact.
The Pact enabled him to invade Poland without fear.
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Nazi-Soviet Nonagression Pact
Foreign Ministers
von Ribbentrop & Molotov
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USSR stays out of the war
in return for 1/2 of Poland
The War Begins
Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939
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Great Britain and France declare war on Germany:
September 3, 1939
The War Begins- Why Poland?
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Blitzkrieg: Lightning War
Blitzkrieg: a form of attack that used tank
divisions supported by air attacks.
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The Phony War
October 1939-May 10, 1940.
Germany built up forces to invade France
France established defenses behind her Maginot
Line: a series of strong fortifications on the
French-German Border.
The Maginot Line did not extend beyond that
border
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Maginot Line
The French had fortified their border with
Germany along the Maginot Line, but the
Germans surprised them by going around it.
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Maginot Line
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Germany Invades France
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Battle of France May 10 – June 22, 1940.
The Germans invaded the Netherlands and Belgium
bypassing the Maginot Line.
Britain and France moved to counter this attack.
Germany Invades France
The Germans trapped the entire British army and
French forces on the beaches of Dunkirk.
Germany now controlled western and central Europe.
Only Britain remained undefeated.
Dunkirk Evacuated
June 4, 1940
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France Surrenders
June 22, 1940
France surrenders.
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Hitler and Nazi’s in France
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A Divided France
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Vichy France was unoccupied
France, governed by authoritarian
regime under German control of
Henri Petain
Henri Pétain
French Resistance
The Cross of Lorraine
chosen by de Gaulle as
the symbol of the Free
French Forces
The Free French
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The Free French Forces were
French fighters in WWII who
decided to continue fighting
against Axis forces after the
surrender of France and
subsequent German
General Charles DeGaulle
occupation.
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Chamberlain to Churchill
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May 10,1940 Churchill
becomes Prime Minister.
Churchill offered no magic
bullets, no miracle solutions,
and no false hope.
May 13,1940 address to
Parliament:
“I would say to the House, as I
said to those who have joined
this government: I have
nothing to offer but blood, toil,
tears and sweat.”
Churchill: A Great Leader
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Churchill: Speeches
June 4, 1940
'... We shall go on to the end, we shall fight
in France, we shall fight on the seas and
oceans, we shall fight with growing
confidence and growing strength in the air,
we shall defend our island, whatever the
cost may be, we shall fight on the beaches,
we shall fight on the landing grounds, we
shall fight in the fields and in the streets, we
shall fight in the hills; we shall never
surrender ...'
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'We shall fight on the beaches ...‘,
Battle of Britain
Hitler understood that he could
not attack Britain by sea unless
he first controlled the air.
August 1940: the LuftwaffeGerman air force- began a
major bombing offensive
against military targets in
Britain.
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Aided by a good radar system,
the British fought back but
suffered critical losses.
Battle of Britain
German leaders: destroy the British air force to stop it
from sinking ships that would carry German soldiers
across the English Channel.
July 10, 1940, the Luftwaffe made their first bomber
attack on British ships in the Channel.
August, 1940 the German air force began its mass
bomber attacks on British airfields, harbors, aircraft
factories and radar stations.
October 31, 1940, ends of the Battle of Britain.
Britain wins.
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The “Blitz”: Attack on British Cities
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What was the Blitz?
Heavy and frequent bombing
attacks on London and other cities
in Britain, especially at night.
Nightly German bombing raids,
from September 7, 1940 until
May 16, 1941, attacked British
cities, ports and industrial areas.
Civilians?
One third of London was
destroyed.
Bomb shelter in the Tube
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32,000 civilians were killed and
87,000 were seriously injured.
What Effect Did the war have on the people?
World War II brought suffering and hardship.
The peaceful routine of everyday life was shattered.
Children were sent out of the cities to stay with
strangers, away from the bombing.
Families were broken up as men were sent to the
front lines to fight, some never to return.
Shops were empty and what was available was often
rationed.
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Where’s the US?
The British asked the United States for help.
The United States had a strict policy of
isolationism.
A series of neutrality acts passed in the 1930s
prevented the United States from involvement
in European conflicts.
Though President Franklin D. Roosevelt
denounced the Germans, the United States did
nothing at first.
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Lend-Lease Act 1941
President Roosevelt had virtually unlimited authority
to direct material aid such as ammunition, tanks,
airplanes, trucks, and food to the war effort in
Europe without violating the U.S. official position
of neutrality.
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The Atlantic Charter
Roosevelt and Churchill
sign treaty of friendship
in August 1941.
Solidifies alliance.
Fashioned after
Wilson’s 14 Points.
Calls for League of
Nations type
organization.
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The Atlantic Charter
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United Nations
Germany Invades USSR
June 22, 1941
Germany launched a
surprise attack on the Soviet
Union.
Breaks the Non-Aggression
Pact.
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The U.S. decided to extend
Lend-Lease aid to the
Soviets as well.
Operation Barbarossa
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Operation Barbarossa
The attack on the Soviet Union stretched out for 1,800
miles.
German troops moved quickly and captured two million
Russian soldiers by November.
The Germans were within 25 miles of Moscow.
Winter came early in 1941 and, combined with fierce
Russian resistance, forced the Germans to halt.
This marked the first time in the war that the Germans
had been stopped.
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Operation Barbarossa
The Germans were not equipped for the bitter Russian winter.
In December, the Soviet army counterattacked.
A new coalition was formed called the Grand Alliance: Great
Britain, the Soviet Union, and the United States.
The three nations agreed to focus on military operations and
ignore political differences.
They agreed in 1943 to fight until the Axis Powers–Germany,
Italy, and Japan– surrendered unconditionally.
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European Theater of Operations
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Pearl Harbor: Background
Japan: Wars of aggression in Asia.
Army, Navy and Air Force undefeated.
Technology and soldiers used the latest strategy.
Signed a pact with Nazi Germany (and Italy) because
Germany becoming the preeminent power in the West:
The Tripartite Pact, Sept 1940.
Only the United States of America is managing to curb
Japan’s ambition by restricting her oil supplies.
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Pearl Harbor: Background
Pearl
Harbor
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The Pacific ocean showing the proximity of
USA and Japan to Hawaii.
Pearl Harbor: Background
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Pearl Harbor-and more!
On December 7, 1941, the
Japanese attacked the U.S. naval
base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii,
the Philippines and the British
colony of Malaya simultaneously.
Japan invaded the Dutch East
Indies and other islands in the
Pacific Ocean.
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By the spring of 1942, the
Japanese controlled almost all of
Southeast Asia and much of the
western Pacific
USS Arizona
Pearl Harbor-Effects
The Japanese thought that their
attacks on the U.S. fleet would
destroy the U.S. Navy and lead
the Americans to accept
Japanese domination in the
Pacific.
The attack on Pearl Harbor had
the opposite effect.
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It united the American people
and convinced the nation that it
should enter the war against
Japan.
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Pearl Harbor
5 PHASE ATTACK BY JAPANESE…
(as noted by the U.S. Navy)
PHASE 1: Combined torpedo plane and dive bomber attacks
lasting from 7:55 a.m. to 8:25 a.m.
PHASE 2: Lull in attacks lasting from 8:25 - 8:40 a.m.
PHASE 3: Horizontal bomber attacks from 8:40 – 9:15 a.m.
PHASE 4: Dive bomber attacks between 9:15-9:45 a.m.
PHASE 5: Warning of attacks and completion of raid after 9:45
a.m.
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“Yesterday, Dec. 7, 1941 - A date which will
live in infamy – the United States of America
was suddenly and deliberately attacked by
naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
Who said this?
Listen to the entire speech - 7:11
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Pearl Harbor
Hitler thought that the Americans
would be too involved in the
Pacific
to fight in Europe.
Four days after Pearl Harbor,
Hitler declared war on the United
States.
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World War II had become a
global war.
The US Enters The War
The US enters the war on the Allied side.
The tide turns in favor of the Allies.
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Pearl Harbor: Today
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Pearl Harbor: Today
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USS Arizona Memorial
War in the Pacific
U.S. troops surrender to the Japanese in the
Philippine Islands, May 6, 1942. A total of 11,500
Americans and Filipinos became POWs.
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Italy-The Soft Underbelly of Europe
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Yalta
Yalta Conference in February 1945
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Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Joseph Stalin
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