Unit 4B Part One Chapter 15.2, 15.3,15.4 & 16.1

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Transcript Unit 4B Part One Chapter 15.2, 15.3,15.4 & 16.1

Unit 4B
Part One
Chapter 15.2, 15.3,15.4 & 16.1
Chapter 15 Section 3: Fascism
Europe
Rises in
Chapter 15 Section 4: Aggressors Invade
Nations
Chapter 16: World War II
1939-1945
Chapter 15.3
Fascism Rises in Europe
Fascism
• Fascism – a form of totalitarianism, based on loyalty to the state and
obedience to its leader.
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Extreme nationalism
One Party rule
Denied human rights
Supreme military
Male-dominated
Controlled mass media
Labor unions suppressed
National police force
Censorship
Anti - Communist
Italy
• High unemployment and
inflation lead to social unrest.
• People want strong leader to
take control of country.
• Benito Mussolini – editor and
politician, won support on
middle class and industry
leaders.
• Founded Fascist Party in
1919.
Mussolini marches on Rome, 1922
• 30,000 Fascists march on Rome in 1922.
• Demand that Mussolini take control.
• Il Duce (Leader)
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Abolished democracy
Outlawed all parties except Fascism
Secret police jailed opponents
Censorship
Outlawed strikes
Sided with industrialists and landowners
Germany
• American loans are helping
economy.
• Great Depression ended any
recovery.
• German economy collapses.
• Civil unrest breaks out.
• Turn to Adolf Hitler for security.
Adolf Hitler
• Former soldier, awarded Iron Cross
for bravery.
• Joined group that wanted to overturn the Treaty of Versailles.
• Forms the National Socialist
German Workers’ Party- Nazi Party
• (1923) Plotted to take over
government, arrested and jailed.
(Tried for Treason)
• 5yr sentence (Served 9 months)
Mein Kampf
“My Struggle”
• Book written by Hitler in jail.
• Lebensraum- Germans needed more
living space, by regaining lost land.
• Aryans- master race, all others
inferior
• Anti-Semitism – discrimination or
prejudice directed at Jews
• Anti-Bolshevik- one leader, one
state
Hitler becomes Chancellor
• Hitler appointed Chancellor
(Prime Minister) of Germany in
1933.
• “der Führer” – leader
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Banned other parties
SS / Gestapo, secret police
Opponents arrested and murdered
Banned strikes/ unions
Government controlled industry
Put Germans to work (Built Factories,
roads, weapons,
– Military Unemployment went from 6
million to 1.5 million
Total control
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Propaganda
Censorship, burned books
Controlled church
Children joined Hitler Youth
(Boys) or League of German
Girls.
• Anti-Semitism
• Kristallnacht – Night of Broken
Glass.
Chapter 15.4
Japan Seeks an Empire
Japan Invades Manchuria
• Japan has investments in Manchuria, Chinese
province
• In 1931, Japanese army seizes Manchuria
• League of Nations protests action; Japan withdraws
from League
Japan Invades China
• In 1937, Japan launches war on China
The Japanese Invasion
of China, 1937
Aggression in
Europe, Asia,
& Africa
1931-1939
September 1931
Japan Invades
Manchuria
July 1937
Japan Invades
China
March 1939
Germany Seizes
Czechoslovakia
October 1935
Italy Attacks
Ethiopia
March 1938
Germany Annexes
Austria
April 1939
Italy Conquers
Albania
March 1936
Germany occupies
Rhineland
September 1938
Germany Takes
Sudetenland
European Aggressors on the March
Mussolini Attacks Ethiopia
• In 1935, Mussolini attacks Ethiopia
• League of Nations does not stop aggression
Hitler Defies Versailles Treaty
• In 1935, Hitler begins rebuilding German army
• In 1936, Germany occupies Rhineland
AGGRESSION BEGINS IN EUROPE
• In the early 1930s both Japan
and Germany quit the League of
Nations
• Hitler then began a huge
military build-up (in direct
violation of the Treaty of
Versailles)
• By 1936 Hitler sent troops into
the Rhineland, a German region
bordering France and Belgium
that was demilitarized by the
Versailles Treaty
Germany Invades the
Rhineland
March 7, 1936
CIVIL WAR IN SPAIN
• In 1936, a group of Spanish
army officers led by
General Francisco Franco,
rebelled against the
Spanish Republic
• A Civil War ensued as
Hitler and Mussolini
supported Franco’s fascists
while the western
democracies remained
neutral
SPANISH LOYALIST AT THE
INSTANT OF DEATH
by Robert Capra, 1936
Hitler’s Plan
• Late in 1937, Hitler was anxious to
start his assault on Europe
• Austria was the first target
• The majority of Austria’s 6 million
people favored unification with
Germany
• On March 12, 1938, German
troops marched into Austria
unopposed
• A day later, Germany announced
its union with Austria
CZECHOSLOVAKIA NEXT
Hitler then turned to Czechoslovakia
• 3 million German-speaking people lived in Sudetenland
• Hitler built up troops on the border . . .
• France & Britain vowed to protect Czech. from Germany
Munich Conference (Appeasement)
• Leaders meet at the Munich Conference
to settle Czech crisis
• Neville Chamberlain (Britain’s prime
minister) met with Hitler and Mussolini
and signed an agreement.
• Britain and France agree to let Hitler take
Sudetenland as long as he agreed to not
invade Czechoslovakia. Hitler agreed.
• The agreement gave Sudetenland to
Germany.
Democratic Nations Try to Preserve Peace
• Appeasement- Giving in to the demands of an
aggressor to avoid a war.
• (Giving up your principles)
• Winston Churchill Did not agree with Neville
Chamberlain about Appeasement
“PEACE IN OUR
TIMES!!?”
•Chamberlain and Daladier
believed Hitler and signed
the Munich Agreement in
September of 1938
• Munich turned over the
Sudetenland to Germany without a
single shot fired
• Chamberlain returned to England
and announced,
“I have come back from Germany
with peace with honor. I believe it
is peace in our time.”
GERMAN OFFENSIVE BEGINS
• Despite Munich Pact, Hitler
was not finished expanding
the German Empire
• March 15, 1939: German
troops poured into what
remained of Czechoslovakia
• At nightfall Hitler declared,
“Czechoslovakia has ceased to
exist”
• Germany had conquered
Czechoslovakia without firing
a shot
German troops invade
Czechoslovakia in March of 1939
Axis Powers
• Germany
• Italy
• Japan
• Signed the Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis
• Wanted to keep the U.S. out of the war.
• Would help one another if attacked.
Allies
• Over 26 countries were on their side.
• Main nations:
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Great Britain
France (defeated by Germany)
Soviet Union
United States (will join later)
China
Australia
Canada
India
Chapter 16: World War II
1939-1945
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Hitler’s Lightning War
Japan Strikes in the Pacific
The Holocaust
The Allies Are Victorious
The Devastation of Europe & Japan
Nonaggression Pact
August 23, 1939
• Hitler wants Poland.
• An agreement where
the Soviet Union
(Stalin) and Germany
agreed to not go to war
with one another.
• They also signed a
secret pact to split
Poland b/w the 2
nations.
WWII Begins
Germany Invades Poland
• September 1, 1939
• Britain, France declare war on Germany but
Poland falls quickly (1 month)
• Blitzkrieg—lightning war—Germany’s new military
strategy
• Planes, tanks, infantry used to surprise enemy and
quickly conquer
• WWII has now started.
Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939
Blitzkrieg [“Lightening War”]
German Troops March into Warsaw
The Soviets Make Their Move
• Soviets annex Lithuania, Latvia, & Poland
• Invade and met resistance in Finland (late Nov.
1939)
• Soviets suffer huge losses due to freezing
winter (Finland)
• Finland surrenders on March 13, 1940
The Phony War
• French, British mobilize
along French border,
wait for German attack
• Many months of no
action—the “phony war”
• In April 1940 Hitler attacks and quickly
captures Denmark (4hrs), Norway (2months)
• Hitler invade Norway for natural resources
(iron ore)
• British failure in Norway brought the fall of
Neville Chamberlain’s Government
France Falls
• Troops & tanks invaded France.
• Germany invaded from the
North, and Italy invaded from the
South.
• Germans took over Paris, the
capital city.
• France surrenders on June 22,
1940
• Charles de Gaulle, French general,
organizes
opposition to Germany
(Free French)
EUROPE 1940- BRITAIN GOES IT ALONE
KEY
Red - Nazi occupied and
controlled
Purple - Nazi controlled
under Mussolini
Blue - Free country,
supported by the United
States
Green - Under the control
of Josef Stalin of Russia
who sided with the Nazis
in 1939
Yellow - Neutral, but
greatly influenced by
Nazis, for example, Spain
was under the dictatorship
of General Franco who
was controlled by Hitler
• Winston Churchill—Becomes British
prime minister, vows “We Shall Never
Surrender”
THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN
• In the summer of 1940 Germany
launched an air attack on England
• Hitler’s plan to attack Britain was
called “Operation Sea Lion”
• The goal was to bomb England into
submission
• Every night for two solid months,
bombers pounded British targets:
airfields, military bases and then
cities
RAF FIGHTS BACK
• The Royal Air Force fought back
bravely with the help of a new
device called radar
• With radar, British pilots could
spot German planes even in
darkness
• The British Spitfire Plane was
instrumental in downing 175 Nazi
planes on September 15, 1940
• Six weeks later, Hitler called off
the attack on England
• Realized that Hitler could be
stopped
A Spitfire dogs a German
Domier Do-17 as it crosses
the Tower of London
Battle of Britain
Axis Forces Attack North Africa
• Mussolini, Italy at first neutral
• Mussolini declares war on France, Britain after German
victory
• September 1940—Mussolini attacks British in North Africa
Britain Strikes Back
• December 1940—British attack and drive Italians back
• Erwin Rommel, German general, battles British in North
Africa
• In 1942, Rommel first retreats then succeeds against British
The War in the Balkans
• Hitler plans to invade Soviet Union; moves to
take Balkan countries
• Hitler invades Yugoslavia (11 days), Greece (17
days) in April 1941; both fall quickly
Hitler Invades the Soviet Union
Operation Barbarossa
• Germany invades an unprepared Soviet Union on June
22,1941
• Soviet troops burn land as they retreat; Germans move
into Russia (Scorched Earth Policy)
• Germans stopped at Leningrad, forced to undertake long
siege (1 million died)
• Germans almost capture Moscow, but forced to pull back
Operation Barbarossa:
Hitler’s Biggest Mistake
The United States Aids Its Allies
American Policy (Isolationism)
• Most Americans want to avoid war
• Roosevelt fears that if allies fall, U.S. would have to fight
• He hopes to strengthen allies so they can resist Germany
• “Cash-and-carry” program
Allowed nations to buy weapons with cash if they shipped
them on their own ships.
• Congress passed the first peacetime military draft in 1940.
• Roosevelt wins 3rd Presidential election, breaks the 2-term
tradition
Lend-Lease• Act
Great Britain ran out of
cash to pay for weapons.
• Roosevelt let Allies
borrow or lease weapons
if their nation’s defense
was important to the
U.S.
• Lend Lease helped the
U.S. Economy (Sold
Goods to Allies)
• Made isolationists angry
U. S. Lend-Lease Act,
1941
Great Britain.........................$31 billion
Soviet Union...........................$11 billion
France......................................$ 3 billion
China.......................................$1.5 billion
Other European.................$500 million
South America...................$400 million
The amount totaled: $48,601,365,000
The Atlantic Charter
Roosevelt and Churchill sign
treaty of friendship on
August 14, 1941 (Their Plan
for postwar peace)
Solidifies alliance
Calls for Free Trade
Choice of Government
Similar to Wilson’s 14
Points.
Calls for League of Nations
type organization. (U.N.)
Battle in the Atlantic
• U.S. joins Great Britain
• Hitler ordered submarines to attack
America on the east coast.
• He knew that British people would starve
w/out U.S. help.
• Over 681 ships were destroyed
• U.S. used convoys to protect the ships.
German U-boats
• German submarines
began attacking in wolf
packs.
• Roosevelt allowed U.S.
warships to attack
German U-boats in selfdefense.