323-670 ปัญญาประดิษฐ์ (Artificial Intelligence)

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Transcript 323-670 ปัญญาประดิษฐ์ (Artificial Intelligence)

CS.462
Artificial Intelligence
SOMCHAI THANGSATHITYANGKUL
Lecture 01 : What is AI
Course Structure
Class Attendance 10 %
Quiz
10 %
Midterm
20 %
Project
20 %
Final
40 %
Text Book: “Artificial Intelligence: A Modern
Approach,” (2nd or 3rd Edition) Stuart Russell
and Peter Norvig, Prentice Hall, 2003
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What is Artificial Intelligence?
Artificial Intelligence
• Computer Encyclopedia
• (Artificial Intelligence) Devices and
applications that exhibit human intelligence
and behavior including robots, expert
systems, voice recognition, natural and
foreign language processing.
It also implies the ability to learn and adapt
through experience.
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Artificial Intelligence
Wikipedia
The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was
first used by John McCarthy who
considers it to mean "the science and
engineering of making intelligent
machines".[1]
It can also refer to intelligence as
exhibited by an artificial (man-made,
non-natural, manufactured) entity.
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Artificial Intelligence
Wikipedia
AI is studied in overlapping fields of
computer science, psychology,
neuroscience and engineering,
dealing with intelligent behavior,
learning and adaptation and usually
developed using customized
machines or computers.
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TURING TEST
Alan Mathison Turing
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TURING TEST
• Columbia Encyclopedia
• Turing test, a procedure to test whether
a computer is capable of humanlike
thought. As proposed (1950) by the
British mathematician Alan Turing, a
person (the interrogator) sits with a
teletype machine isolated from two
correspondents—one is another person,
one is a computer.
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Criteria for success
•
How will we know if we have succeeded?
•
Turing test. Human
•
DENDRAL : is a program that analyzes organic
compounds to determine their structure.
•
HUMAN CHEMIST
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Computer
Person asking?
COMPUTER
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History of Artificial Intelligence
1950
1951
1956
1958
Alan Turing introduces the Turing test intended to test a machine's capability to
participate in human-like conversation.
The first working AI programs were written to run on the Ferranti Mark I machine
of the University of Manchester: a checkers-playing program written by
Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz.
John McCarthy coined the term "artificial intelligence" as the topic of the
Dartmouth Conference.
John McCarthy invented the Lisp programming language.
Joseph Weizenbaum built ELIZA, an interactive program that carries on a dialogue
1965 in English language on any topic.
Edward Feigenbaum initiated DENDRAL, a 10-yr effort to develop software to
deduce the molecular structure of organic compounds using scientific instrument
1965 data. It was the first expert system.
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History of Artificial Intelligence
1966
1968
1972
1973
1974
1997
1999
2004
Machine Intelligence workshop at Edinburgh - the first of an influential annual series
organized by Donald Michie and others.
HAL 9000 made its appearance in the science fiction movie 2001: A Space Odyssey.
The Prolog programming language was developed by Alain Colmerauer.
Edinburgh Freddy Assembly Robot: a versatile computer-controlled assembly system.
Ted Shortliffe's PhD dissertation on the MYCIN program (Stanford) demonstrated a very
practical rule-based approach to medical diagnoses, even in the presence of uncertainty.
While it borrowed from DENDRAL, its own contributions strongly influenced the future of
expert system development, especially commercial systems.
The Deep Blue chess program (IBM) beats the world chess champion, Garry Kasparov.
Sony introduces the AIBO, an artificially intelligent pet.
DARPA introduces the DARPA Grand Challenge requiring competitors to produce
autonomous vehicles for prize money.
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Artificial Intelligence
Typical problems to which AI methods are applied
Pattern recognition
Computer vision, Virtual reality and Image processing
Optical character recognition Diagnosis (artificial intelligence)
Handwriting recognition
Game theory and Strategic planning
Speech recognition
Game artificial intelligence and Computer game bot
Face recognition
Natural language processing, Translation and Chatterbots
Artificial Creativity
Non-linear control and Robotics
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AI Areas
•Artificial Intelligence (AI) :
•the branch o f computer science that is concerned with the
automation of intelligent behavior.
•AI Areas :
• Game Playing
• Automated Reasoning and Theorem Proving
• Expert Systems
• Natural Language Understanding and Semantics Modeling
• Modeling Human Performance
• Planning and Robotics
• Machine Leaning
• Neural Networks
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Robotics
• Shakey the Robot
Developed in 1969 by the
Stanford Research
Institute, Shakey was the
first fully mobile robot with
artificial intelligence. Seven
feet tall, Shakey was
named after its rather
unstable movements.
(Image courtesy of The
Computer History Museum,
www.computerhistory.org)
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Robotics
• A legged game
from RoboCup
2004 in Lisbon,
Portugal
• Team ENSCO's entry in
the first Grand
Challenge, DAVID
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Robotics
• The DARPA Grand Challenge is
a race for a $2 million prize
where cars drive themselves
across several hundred miles of
challenging desert terrain
without any communication
with humans, using GPS,
computers and a sophisticated
array of sensors. In 2005 the
winning vehicles completed all
132 miles of the course in just
under 7 hours.
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Robotics
• Huey, Dewey and Louie
• Named after Donald
Duck's famous nephews,
robots at this Wayne,
Michigan plant apply
sealant to prevent possible
water leakage into the car.
Huey (top) seals the drip
rails while Dewey (right)
seals the interior weld
seams. Louie is outside of
the view of this picture.
(Image courtesy of Ford
Motor Company.)
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Robotics
• ASIMO,
• a humanoid robot
manufactured by
Honda.
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Computer Vision
Vision based biological
species identification
systems
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Computer Vision
• Artist's Concept of
Rover on Mars,
• an example of an
unmanned landbased vehicle.
Notice the stereo
cameras mounted
on top of the
Rover. (credit:
Maas Digital LLC)
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Captcha
• Completely Automated Public Turing
Test to tell Computers and Humans
Apart = Captcha
• A CAPTCHA is a program that can
generate and grade tests that most
humans can pass, but current computer
programs can't pass.
• Developed by Carnegie Mellon School of
Computer Science
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Captcha
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Captcha
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Captcha
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Captcha
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Machine Learning
• Wikipedia
• machine learning is concerned with the
development of algorithms and
techniques that allow computers to
"learn".
• At a general level, there are two types of
learning: inductive, and deductive.
Inductive machine learning methods
extract rules and patterns out of massive
data sets.
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Expert System
• Expertise consists of knowledge about a
particular domain, understanding of domain
problems, and skill at solving some of these
problems.
• Knowledge in any specialty is of two types,
public and private.
• Public knowledge includes the published
definitions, facts, and theories which are
contained in textbooks and references in
the domain of study. But expertise usually
requires more than just public knowledge.
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Natural Language Processing
• Wikipedia
• Natural language processing (NLP) is a
subfield of artificial intelligence and linguistics.
It studies the problems of automated
generation and understanding of natural human
languages.
• Natural language generation systems convert
information from computer databases into normalsounding human language, and natural language
understanding systems convert samples of human
language into more formal representations that are
easier for computer programs to manipulate.
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Natural Language Processing
• We gave the monkeys the bananas because
they were hungry and We gave the monkeys
the bananas because they were over-ripe.
• have the same surface grammatical structure.
However, in one of them the word they refers
to the monkeys, in the other it refers to the
bananas:
• the sentence cannot be understood properly
without knowledge of the properties and
behaviour of monkeys
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Heuristic
• Computer Encyclopedia
• heuristic
• A method of problem solving using
exploration and trial and error methods.
Heuristic program design provides a
framework for solving the problem in
contrast with a fixed set of rules
(algorithmic) that cannot vary.
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tic tac toe
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Tic Tac Toe
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