FIS709 - The Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

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Transcript FIS709 - The Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta

I LOVE FISH
FISH HARVESTING AND
MARKETING
By:
Mrs N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Senior Lecturer,
Department of Aquaculture and Fisheries Management,
College of Environmental Resources Management,
University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, Nigeria
HARVESTING
• Though fish farming is increasing, fishing
represents the last major exploitation of
wild populations by mankind
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• Fishing/Harvesting mean removals of fishes
from water. Equipments for fishing are
called fishing gears. The types of fishing
gear used and the way they are operated in
Nigeria are controlled by various factors.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• Fishing methods in Nigeria could be classified
into many types namely;
•
• Gill net
Passive netting
• Trammel net
Passive netting
• Cast net
Active netting
• Beach seine net
Active
• Beating method net
Active
• Hand net
Active
• Lift net
Active
• Drift net
Passive
• Clap
Active
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
K
3
2
Numbers
1
Time
Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY)
• Based upon:
• 1. the harvest rate
• 2. the recruitment rate of new (young) fish into the
population
• a population can be harvested at the point in their
population growth rate where it is highest (the exponential
phase)
• Harvesting (output) balances recruitment (input)
• Fixed fishing quotas will produce a constant harvesting rate
(i.e. a constant number of individuals fished in a given
period of time)
© 2008 Paul Billiet ODWS
Declining natural supplies, increasing
human population, and pollution
provide the demand for growth in the
aquaculture industry.
Photo by David Heikes courtesy of USDA
MARKET
• A market is where we buy and sell or
where buyers and sellers need to
exchange commodities.
• A market could be visible or invisible,
however classification can be done
based on different criteria
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• On the basis of area: These are
– Local market
– National market
– International market
• On the basis of Time:
– Very short period (for perishable goods as fish,
vegetables etc) where transaction makes place
within a short time. Supply is always equal to
demand in such markets.
– Short period- where demand always exceed
supply during the transaction period.
– long period- All demand are satisfied, demand
and supply curves are more elastic.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• On the basis of business:
– Wholesale Market – This is bulk purchaser and
distribution. Usually between the fisherfolks and
the mammy women who pay and collect
smoked/dried fish in bulk
– Retail Market – Linked directly to the consumers.
In the fishery sector its usually the last link
between the numerous fish mongers and the
consumers. This market creates more of
possession utility.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• On the basis of operation:
– Primary market
– Secondary market
– Terminal market
• On the basis of goods dealt with:
– Produce exchange
– Manufactured or semi-manufactured food
market.
– Bullion market.
– Input market
– Capital market
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• In the fisheries sector, there exists
differentiation of good such as fresh fish,
smoked fish, marine fresh, marine frozen
etc. individual goods and their forms
constitute a market.
• E.g. Shrimp market could be domestic or
foreign.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
UTILITIES
• In the fisheries sector creation of utilities is a
major function of the production process.
These usefulness or utilities include:
• Form utility: This occur when fish is
transformed to finished products. This
involves a radical change in appearance and
other characteristics. E.g. geisha tin of fish.
• Time utility: This is added when the products
are stored from harvesting until needed for
consumption, or when the retailers store the
fish as collected till when sold on market days.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• Place utility: This is accentuated by
rail, road or boat, which transports the
fish from one point to another where
it would consumed.
• Possession Utility: This is the final
utility. It is added when its ownership
is transferred to the final owner or
consumer, or to some one in the
marketing chain, who may create
other utilities as it passes from him to
the final consumers.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Fish Catch Distribution Channels of Fish in some selected parts in Nigeria.
Fish Catch
Home use
Processed by middlemen
(Smoking
Fish Merchants
0
Consumers
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Structure of Banda Marketing
Fisherman catch
Itinerant Fish trader
Consumer
Fishing Village
Processed Fish
Collecting Centres on the
lake shore
Processed and stored Fish
Major wholesale centre
Other parts of the nation
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
CONSTRAINTS TO AQUACULTURE DEVELOPMENT
•
•
•
•
Poor quality fish seed
Lack of cost effective fish feed
Poaching lack of capital
Unstable government and effective government
policies.
• Faulty data collection
• Lack of environmental impact consideration,
and
• Poor marketing structure.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
There are many
opportunities, and
challenges, for the smallscale aquaculture farmer!
Poor Quality Fish Seed
• Farmers have to travel long distances to source for
fingerlings or collect from the open waters.
• In some cases, fingerlings of poor genetic quality are
produced for farmers to grow
• some hatcheries sell advanced fry as fingerlings. This has
resulted in stunted growth of fish, poor survival rate, and
power returns on investment
• Aquaculture is yet to fully exploit the potential of
genetics in improving fish seed production in Nigeria.
• Most of the fish farmers producing fingerlings are not
knowledgeable on methods of fish selection and genetic
manipulation which can improve fish performance
without adversely affecting biodiversity
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
High Cost of Fish Feed
• Good-quality fish feed pallets are sparingly
used by fish farmers.
• This is due to high cost of most fish feed
ingredients particularly fish meal and its
competitive use by livestock farmers.
• There are also few commercial fish feed
producers in Nigeria, a lot of farmers depend
on imported quality fish feeds which are
expensive and not affordable.
• This increases their cost of production and
reduces their profit margins.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Poaching
• This is becoming a serious problem to the
development of aquaculture in Nigeria.
• Many farmers have lost substantial, if not all
stocks to poachers.
• As a result of this, many fish farms have closed
down while many more farmers have run into
debt.
• This has also prevented lending agencies from
giving out loans to genuine fish farmers. The
overall effects is a decrease in fish production.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Lack of Capital
• Many fish farmers lack adequate capital to either
run their farms profitably or expand them.
• The situation is made difficult by the unwillingness
of financial institutions to grant loans to the farmers.
• When loans are given. It is usually at very high
interest rates.
• Government should therefore encourage financial
institutions to give loans to serious-minded would
be investors at interest rates of 9% but with proper
monitoring. This will help to increase farmers
production levels and profitability.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Unstable Government and Defective Government
policies
• The Nigeria Government has not shown serious
commitment to research in respect of improving
aquaculture production in Nigeria.
• Although there are two fisheries research institute in
Nigeria (NIOMR and NIFFR) and several universities
where fisheries is being taught at both undergraduate
and postgraduate levels, poor funding of these institutes
and universities is an indication of unseriousness on the
part of government toward improved aquaculture
production,
• Aquaculture cannot develop without adequate research,
even when research are carried out most of the findings
are nor communicated to the farmers at all or at the
right time.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Faulty Data Collection
• There is no adequate record keeping of aquaculture
production in Nigeria.
• Most fish farmers do no keep records of their yearly
production.
• The situation is compounded by lack of motivation
and provision of necessary resources for both the
federal and state Departments of Fisheries which are
supposed to educate farmers on the need for recordkeeping and collation of production data from the
farms.
• There are therefore, no accurate seasonal records
for projections of aquaculture production.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Lack of Environmental Impact Consideration
• The environmental impact of most fish farms in
Nigeria on the neighborhoods and vice-versa
has not been assessed.
• Many fish farms releases their effluent into the
environment without considering its impact.
• Water from polluted streams and rivers are
also used as sources of water for fish farms.
This has resulted in poor water quality and in
many fish farms. Hence, poor growth rate,
and/or mass mortality of fish in some cases.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Marketing of Aquaculture products
• Marketing of aquaculture products is becoming a
problem in Nigeria.
• This is not because the supply is in excess of demand but
because of uncoordinated marketing programmes.
• Many farmers sell their fish in fresh form to middle-men
at very low prices.
• There is therefore, the need for networking and
marketing information among fish farmers, processors
and consumers on availability of fish and current market
prices all over the country to prevent the farmer from
being ripped- off.
• The quality control of such products should be ensured
by regulatory agencies.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
MARKETING SCHEME
• MARKETING OF FINGERLINGS
• The marketing of fry and fingerlings
produced or marketed through a fish
farm is specialized enterprise. In this
undertaking, various methods may be
employed to hold the fish, count them
and
package
them
for
onward
transportation to the customer.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
HOLDING FACILITY
• Prior to transportation, it is necessary to hold
seed fish for at least 24 hours in order for the
fish to empty their guts, and become partially
acclimated to being held in the crowded
conditions prevalent during transportation.
• To facilitate this, various types of holding
facilities may be used. These range from a
hapa-like net made of plastic or small mesh
net (10 mm) suspended in a pond, stream, or
reservoir. to concrete or fibre glass tanks in a
re-circulating system
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
COUNTING
• Fry and fingerlings are best counted after
they have been given sufficient time to
recover from the stress of being caught
from the nursery pond, i.e. at least twelve
hours later.
• After the recuperation period, The fish
should be counted into another container
ready for collection.
• Maltreatment of very young fish must be
avoided, as losses tend to escalate.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
TRANSPORT
• In the farmers case, liability for losses in
transit rests very firmly with the
transporters, while in the latter case, the
client is more responsible for his fish.
• When the fish breeder delivers the
fingerlings to the client, he is obliged to
accept responsibility for any losses within
twelve hours of stocking the fish, therefore
he should be prepared to check the clients
pond water quality before stocking the
fingerlings.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
MARKETING OF TABLE FISH
• it will soon be necessary for producers,
processors and marketers to properly coordinate their activities to ensure the success of
the industry through sustained and profitable
growth.
• Seven important factors have been identified as
crucial and therefore should be regarded as the
points of focus: identity, price, quality, versatility,
regular supply, advertising and new products.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
IDENTITY
• In order to develop the market for fish farm
produce, their is need for personnel in the
industry with extensive knowledge of
marketing and who are result-oriented and self
motivated.
• These personnel will have the task of
establishing and identity for produce of fish
farms.
• One of the greatest marketing advantages of fish
over other food is the high nutritional quality.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
MARKET STRUCTURE (PRICE
AND QUALITY)
• As there is a general lack of storage
facilities in these countries (especially in
Nigeria), a large proportion of the catch,
sometimes up to 50%, perish at peak
periods in artisanal fisheries.
• Thus, for pond reared fish, as well as fish
caught in the wild, there is need to dispose
of the stock early on the day it is harvested.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• Smoking is the favoured form of
preservation, especially where
availability of firewood is not a
constraint.
• In places where smoking is too expensive,
salt drying is sometimes employed.
• However, in some countries, fishermen
co-operatives transport their catches in
refrigerated trucks to government cold
stores where they are sold gradually to
the public and the co-operatives
maximise their profits.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• Naturally, retailing fetches more or
higher income, but there is need for
holding and storage facilities and
therefore considerable investment on
infrastructure.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
VERSATILITY:
• Fish must be prepared in a variety of forms to
meet the demands of consumers as both whole
fish and fillets.
• Whole fish are prepared in some traditional
dishes like stews and pepper soups while fillets
are used in fast food outlets and restaurants.
• Fresh fish will probably be in demand by most
consumers, as icing and freezing often are the
most significant technological advance
permitting the development of market far
removed from fish farms.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
REGULAR SUPPLY
• The lack of a year-round supply is
currently the greatest problem for any food
products in the supermarkets.
• Due to the present uncoordinated
practices, fish are usually harvested at the
same time. This results in abundance of
fish over a short period, followed by wholly
inadequate supplies.
• This situation makes it extremely difficult
for processors or large retail outlets to
operate effectively and results in chaotic
marketing practices.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• The comments apply to the fish supplied
to restaurants and feast food outlets.
• A year-round supply of fish is required to
sustain and increase sales,
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
ADVERTISING
• In time, aquaculturists will need to form
themselves into production groups such as
catfish farmers, carps farmers, tilapia
farmers and shrimps farmers, and be
prepared to advertise their products.
• Co-operation with restaurants and
supermarkets on special promotions and
point of sale advertisement drives will be of
some value.
• These drives are especially valuable when
expanding outside current marketing areas.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
NEW PRODUCTS
• Cultured fish can be used for the
preparation of processed fish dishes as
readily as their wild counterparts.
• As the supply of cultured fish increases,
new product form will become desirable
in order to create expanded markets.
• For development of new products,
economics department and food
processors will be required to utilize
their information to expand product lines.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
MAJOR PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH
VARIOUS KINDS OF FISHERY
DEVELOPMENT
• In most of the less advanced countries, the
development of food resources must
precede the development of diversified
industry.
• The fishery resources may be relatively
much less important in the moreadvanced countries
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
END USER
• HUMAN CONSUPTION (CONSUMER
PREFERENCES)
– Fresh fish per capital processed fish consumption.
– Infrastructure to support distribution
– Demographic distribution of demand
– Price income elasticity
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
EXPERT Markets
• Foreign participants and control
• Quality control of importers
• A well due port with cold storage, ice and
freezing facilities attracts a large fishing fleet
and have more highly developed and
sophisticated fish market, the method of
storing the catch affects marketing condition.
• Catch may be shared by crew members to trade
through his own trading outlet, female
mammys(middle men) can buy in small scale,
fish smoking may come in.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
THE EFFECT OF MARKETING
CONSTRAINTS ON PRODUCTION
• A study of fish marketing and processing is
important because the constraints they
generate can impede fisheries development
• There are a lot of marine resources which have
not yet found an acceptable market e.g krill,
mesopelagic fish and other by catches
• Through Technology the appearance of such
naturally uncommon, unattractive species can
be transformed to fish products.
• Makes all the wastage attractive and acceptable
for consumers.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
• The system of domestic marketing and
distribution may not be efficient and may
cause constraints on production
• the distribution chain may be exercising
monopolistic controls which are
effectively reduced price paid to the
fisherman and increased price charged
to consumers so that less is produced &
demand than would occur under
comprehensive conditions.
• The difficulty of entering foreign
markets may affect production badly.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
MARKETING OF FISH PRODUCTS
• To make fish available to consumers at the right time
and in the right place requires an effective
marketing system.
• Fishermen who catch fish by labouring overnight
(from common-property water bodies) do not
usually sell fish in retail markets. At the break of day.
• They take their catches to place where retailers meet
them and bargain by lot.
• At the landing point, the number of intermediaries is
low. Only one or two intermediaries may approach a
fisherman.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
CATCH PER UNIT OF EFFORT
• CPUE. The quantity of fish caught (in
number or in weight) with one standard
unit of fishing effort;
• e.g. number of fish taken per 1000 hooks
per day or weight of fish, in tons, taken per
hour of trawling.
• CPUE is often considered an index of fish
biomass (or abundance).
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
MARKET PRICE DETERMINATION
• When buyers and sellers come into a
market, each buyer has in mind the
maximum price he will pay for a good,
• while each seller, on his part, has
determined on a minimum price.
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
Further readings
• Olokor, J.O., J.A. Ihuahi, F.S. Omojowo, B.A.
Falayi and E.O. Adeowo (2007). Hand book
of Practical Fisheries Technology. Fisheries
Technology Division, Remi-Thomas Press
• Eyo, A. A. (2001). Fish Processing
Technology in the Tropics. University of
Ilorin Press
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)
THANK YOU
Harvesting and Marketing
of Fish
N. B. IKENWEIWE (PhD)