01_PPTLecture_LEC

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Transcript 01_PPTLecture_LEC

Good morning!
Opener, 8/24/10
1. State what
the standard
deviation
indicates. (1)
2. State the
maximum
number of
ciliates and
the month in
which the
maximum
occurs. (1)
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Chapter 1
Biology: Exploring Life
PowerPoint Lectures for
Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition
– Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon
Lectures by Chris Romero
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
A Big-Billed Bird Rebounds!!
• Brown pelicans
– part of the web of life in their environment
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The brown
pelicans’
proximity to
humans
 trouble for the
species
• Their connection
to the
environment
• Sets stage for
the study of
biology
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
THE SCOPE OF BIOLOGY
1.1 Life’s levels of organization define the scope of biology
• Life’s structural hierarchy
Biosphere
Ecosystem
Florida coast
–
Defines scope
of biology,
scientific
study of life
Community
All organisms on
the Florida coast
Population
Group of brown
pelicans
Organism
Brown pelican
Spinal cord
Organ system
Nervous system
Brain
Nerve
Organ
Brain
Tissue
Nervous tissue
Figure 1.1
Cell
Nerve cell
Nucleus
Organelle
Nucleus
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Atom
Molecule
DNA
• An ecosystem consists of all the organisms
living in a particular area
– As well as nonliving environmental
components
• All the living organisms in an ecosystem
– Make up a community
Biosphere
Ecosystem
Florida coast
Community
All organisms on
the Florida coast
Population
Group of brown
pelicans
Organism
Brown pelican
Spinal cord
Organ system
Nervous system
Brain
Organ
Brain
Nerve
Tissue
Nervous tissue
CellNucleus
Nerve cell
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Atom
Organelle
Nucleus
Molecule
DNA
• A population
– Consists of a localized group of
individuals of a species
Biosphere
• An individual living entity
– Is an organism
Ecosystem
Florida coast
Community
All organisms on
the Florida coast
Population
Group of brown
pelicans
Organism
Brown pelican
Spinal cord
Organ system
Nervous system
Brain
Nerve
Organ
Brain
Tissue
Nervous tissue
Cell
Nerve cell
Nucleus
Organelle
Nucleus
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Atom
Molecule
DNA
• The hierarchy continues downward with
Biosphere
– Organ systems
Ecosystem
Florida coast
– Organs
– Tissues
Community
All organisms on
the Florida coast
Population
Group of brown
pelicans
– Cells
Organism
Brown pelican
Spinal cord
– Organelles
Organ system
Nervous system
Brain
Nerve
– Molecules
Organ
Brain
Tissue
Nervous tissue
Cell
Nerve cell
Nucleus
Organelle
Nucleus
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Atom
Molecule
DNA
1.2 Living organisms and their environments form interconnecting webs
• Ecosystems characterized by cycling of
chemical nutrients from atmosphere and soil
– To producers to consumers to
decomposers and back to the
environment
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Energy flows one-way through an ecosystem
–
From the sun to producers to consumers
and exits as heat
Sun
Air
Inflow
of
light
energy
O2
CO2
CO2
Chemical
energy
Producers
Cycling
of
Chemical
nutrients
Decomposers
H2O
Figure 1.2
Soil
Ecosystem
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Consumers
Loss
of
heat
energy
1.3 Cells are the structural & functional units of life
• A cell
–
Is the basic unit of life
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• New properties emerge
– From the complex organization of a
system, such as a cell
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• Eukaryotic cells
–
Contain membrane-enclosed organelles,
including a DNA-containing nucleus
• Prokaryotic cells
–
Lack such organelles
Nucleus
(contains DNA)
cell
cell
DNA
(no nucleus)
Figure 1.3
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
25,000 
Organelles
EVOLUTION, UNITY, AND DIVERSITY
1.4 The unity of life:
All forms of life have common features
• DNA is genetic information
– For constructing molecules that make up
cells and organisms
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Each species’ genetic instructions
–
Figure 1.4A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
A
G
T
T
A
G
C
C
A
T
T
C
A
A
Are coded in sequences of 4 building blocks
making up DNA’s 2 helically-coiled chains
• All organisms share a common set of 6 features
–
Ordered structures
–
Regulation of internal conditions
Figure 1.4B
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Figure 1.4C
Figure 1.4D
–
Growth and development
–
Energy use
–
Response to environmental stimuli
–
Ability to reproduce and evolve
Figure 1.4E
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
1.5 The diversity of life can be arranged into 3 domains
• Organisms are grouped (classified)
– Prokaryotic domains
– Bacteria and Archaea
– Eukaryotic domain
– Eukarya
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
SEM 3,250
• Domains Bacteria and Archaea
SEM 25,000
Figure 1.5A
Figure 1.5B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Domain Eukarya includes
275
Kingdom Fungi
Kingdom Animalia
Protists
(multiple kingdoms)
Kingdom
Plantae
Figure 1.5C
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
1.6 Evolution explains the unity and diversity of life
• Charles Darwin
– Synthesized the theory of evolution by
natural selection
Figure 1.6A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Natural selection is an editing mechanism
–
occurs when populations/organisms, having
inherited variations,
–
exposed to environmental factors that favor the
reproductive success of some individuals over
others
1
Populations with varied inherited traits
2
Elimination of individuals with certain traits
Figure 1.6B
3
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Reproduction of survivors
• All organisms have adaptations
–
That have evolved by means of natural
selection
Killer whale
Pangolin
Figure 1.6C
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Video of Seahorses!
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
THE PROCESS OF SCIENCE
1.7 Scientists use 2 main approaches to learn
about nature
• Science
– Is a way of knowing
– Seeks natural causes for natural
phenomena
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Discovery Science
• Scientists describe some aspect of the world
• use inductive reasoning to draw general
conclusions
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Hypothesis-Based Science
• Scientists attempt to explain
observations by testing hypotheses
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
1.8 With hypothesis-based science, we pose &
test hypotheses
• Hypothesis-based science involves
– Observations, questions, hypotheses as
tentative answers to questions
– Deductions leading to predictions, & then
tests of predictions to see if a hypothesis
is falsifiable
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
A Case Study from Everyday Life
• Deductive reasoning is used in testing hypotheses as
follows
–
If a hypothesis is correct, and we test it, then we
can expect a particular outcome
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.8A The hypothesis-driven scientific method (layer 1)
Observations
Question
Hypothesis # 1:
Dead batteries
Hypothesis # 2:
Burnt-out bulb
Prediction:
Replacing batteries
will fix problem
Prediction:
Replacing bulb
will fix problem
Test prediction
Test prediction
Test falsifies hypothesis
Test does not falsify hypothesis
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.8A The hypothesis-driven scientific method (layer 2)
Observations
Question
Hypothesis # 1:
Dead batteries
Hypothesis # 2:
Burnt-out bulb
Prediction:
Replacing batteries
will fix problem
Prediction:
Replacing bulb
will fix problem
Test prediction
Test prediction
Test falsifies hypothesis
Test does not falsify hypothesis
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 1.8A The hypothesis-driven scientific method (layer 3)
Observations
Question
Hypothesis # 1:
Dead batteries
Hypothesis # 2:
Burnt-out bulb
Prediction:
Replacing batteries
will fix problem
Prediction:
Replacing bulb
will fix problem
Test prediction
Test prediction
Test falsifies hypothesis
Test does not falsify hypothesis
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
A Case Study of Hypothesis-Based Science
• experiments designed to test hypotheses
–
The use of control groups and experimental
groups
–
helps to control variables
100
84%
83%
Artificial king snakes
Figure 1.8B
Figure 1.8C
Percent of total attacks
on artificial snakes
80
Artificial brown snakes
60
40
20
17%
16%
0
Coral snakes
absent
Figure 1.8E
Figure 1.8D
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Coral snakes
present
BIOLOGY AND EVERYDAY LIFE CONNECTION
1.8 Biology is connected to our lives in many ways
–
Environmental problems and solutions
–
Genetic engineering
–
Medicine
Figure 1.9
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• technological advances
– Stem from scientific research
• science-technology-society relationship
– important aspect of any biology course
Online Video Antibiotics & Their Resistance
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Opener: Thursday, January 21st
What do error bars on graphs show?
A. If the data is correct or not.
B. How variable the data is.
C. Which result is closest to the true result.
D. What statistical technique was used to
eliminate incorrect results.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Quiz tomorrow…
• I DID put some chapter 1 (pelican book)
questions on it– 9 multiple choice
• Also,
• 3 m choice for stats
• 8 short answer for stats
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
p. 13-Connecting the Concepts
1. Biology can be described as having both a
vertical scale and a horizontal scale. Explain what
that means.
Vertical - refers to hierarchy of biological organization:
molecules to organelles, cells, tissues, organs, organ
systems, organisms, populations, communities,
ecosystems, and biosphere. At each level, emergent
properties arise from the interaction and organization
of component parts.
Horizontal - refers to incredible diversity of living
organisms, past and present, including the 1.8 million
species that have been named so far that can be
grouped into three domains–Bacteria, Archaea, and
Eukarya–and divided among numerous kingdoms.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
p. 13-Connecting the Concepts
2. Complete the
following map
organizing
some of
biology’s major
concepts.
a. life; b. evolution;
c. natural
selection; d.
unity of life;
e. three domains (or
numerous
kingdoms; 1.8
million species)
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
#15
• The graph below shows the results of an
experiment in which mice learned to run
through a maze.
a. State the hypothesis and
prediction that you think this
experiment tested.
b. Which was the control group and
which the experimental? Why was a
control group needed?
c. List some variables that must have
been controlled so as not to affect the
results.
d. Do the data support the
hypothesis? Explain.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
#15
a. Hypothesis: Giving rewards to mice will
improve their learning. Prediction: If mice are
rewarded with food, they will learn to run a
maze faster.
b. The control group was the mice that were not
rewarded. Without them, it would be
impossible to know if the mice who were
rewarded decreased their time running the
maze only because of practice.
c. Both groups of mice should be about the
same age. Both experiments should be run at
the same time of day and under the same
conditions.
d. Yes, the data show that the rewarded mice
began to run the maze faster by day 3, and
improved their performance (ran faster than
the control mice) each day thereafter.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
IB BOOKS
• Red Books, Green Books
• Get out your IB Journal Notebook—
• Example of Format:
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings