Chapter 15 Darwin*s Theory of Evolution

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Transcript Chapter 15 Darwin*s Theory of Evolution

Brain Warm Up
1. What different
ways do these
animals use to
move about?
2. What traits does
each animal
have that help it
move about as it
15-1 The Puzzle of Life’s Diversity
Humans share the earth with millions of
other kinds of organisms of every
imaginable shape, size, and habitat.
This variety of living things is called
biological diversity.
The evolutionary theory accounts for the
diversity of life.
Evolution or change over time, is the
process by which modern organisms
have descended from ancient
A scientific theory is a well-supported
testable explanation of phenomena that
have occurred in the natural world.
Voyage of the Beagle
Charles Darwin was born on February
12, 1809 – the same day as Abraham
 In 1831, he set sail on the HMS Beagle.
 Figure 15-1, page 369
 On a five year voyage, Darwin visited
several continents and many remote
Voyage of the Beagle
During his travels, Darwin made numerous
observations and collected evidence that
led him to propose a revolutionary
hypothesis about the way life changes over
This hypothesis, now supported by a huge
body of evidence, has become the theory
of evolution.
Voyage of the Beagle
Darwin was the naturalist on the ship,
and he went ashore to collect plant and
animal specimens that he added to his
Darwin proposed a scientific explanation
for the diversity of life on this planet.
Darwin’s Observations
During a single day in the Brazilian
forest, he collected 68 different beetle
species – he wasn’t even searching for
He began to realize that an enormous
number of species inhabit the Earth.
Patterns of Diversity
Darwin was intrigued by the fact that so many
plants and animals seemed remarkably well
suited to whatever environment they
He was also puzzled by where species lived
and did not live.
Why were there no rabbits in Australia?
Why no kangaroos in England?
Living Organisms and Fossils
Living organisms represented just part of the
puzzle posed by the natural world.
Darwin collected fossils which are the
preserved remains of ancient organisms.
Some fossils looked like organisms that
were still alive and others looked completely
unlike any other creatures he had ever seen.
The Galapagos Islands
He found
that each
island was
a source of
diversity of
environments and
The Journey Home
When he returned, Darwin began to wonder
if animals living on different islands had once
been members of the same species.
According to this hypothesis, these separate
species would have evolved from an original
South American ancestor species after
becoming isolated from one another.
15-1 Section Assessment
Answer questions 1 – 5 from page 372
on your own paper and in complete
This will be taken up for a grade.
Brain Warm Up
Read page 373
What was the way of thinking in Europe
in Darwin’s day?
What do you think people thought about
what Darwin had to say?
15-2 Ideas That Shaped Darwin’s
During the 18th and 19th centuries, scientists
examined the Earth in great detail.
James Hutton and Charles Lyell helped
scientists recognize that Earth is many
millions of years old, and the processes that
changed Earth in the past are the same
processes that operate in the present.
Hutton and Geological Change
Hutton proposed the variety of natural forces,
like rain, wind and temperatures, that shape
the earth operate extremely slowly, often over
millions of years.
 Hutton proposed the Earth had to be much
more than a few thousands of years old.
Lyell’s Principles of Geology
Lyell’s work explained how awesome
geological features could be built up or
torn down over long periods of time.
This helped Darwin, he thought if the
Earth could change over time, might life
change as well?
Lamarck’s Evolution Hypothesis
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck recognized that living
things change over time and that all species
were descended from other species.
In 1809, Lamarck proposed that by selective
use or disuse of organs, organisms acquired
or lost certain traits during their lifetime.
These traits could then be passed on to their
offspring. Over time, this process led to
change in a species.
Tendency Toward Perfection
Lamarck proposed that all organisms have
an innate tendency toward complexity and
As a result, they are constantly changing and
acquiring features that help them live more
successfully in their environment.
Bird - flying
Use and Disuse
Because of an organisms tendency
toward perfection, Lamarck proposed
that organisms could alter the size and
shape of particular organs by using their
bodies in new ways.
Birds – wings
Inheritance of Acquired Traits
Lamarck thought that acquired
characteristics could be inherited.
Evaluating Lamarck’s Hypothesis
Lamarck and Darwin did not know how
traits are inherited and that an
organism’s behavior has no effect on its
heritable characteristics.
He was right in realizing that organisms
are adapted to their environments.
Population Growth
In 1798, Thomas Malthus published a book in
which he noted that babies were being born
faster than people were dying.
Malthus reasoned that if the human population
continued to grow unchecked, sooner or later
there would be insufficient living space and food
for everyone.
War, famine and disease worked against growth.
15-2 Section Assessment
As a table, write a 2 – 3 sentence
summary of each of the men we
discussed today.
Individually - Complete the vocabulary
on page 378. 10 total words.
Brain Warm Up
Why do you think organisms change
and do not stay the same?
Why do you think the topic of evolution
is so controversial?
You must answer in complete
15-3 Darwin Presents His Case
Darwin delayed publishing his work
because of possible criticism.
What current areas of scientific research
are controversial, much as evolution
was controversial in Darwin’s time?
Publication of On the Origin of
Darwin filled notebooks with his ideas
about species diversity and the evolution
 He shelved his manuscript for years and
told his wife to publish it in case he died.
 In 1858, Darwin received a short essay
from naturalist Alfred Wallace.
 In 1859, Darwin published his book, On
the Origin of Species.
Publication of On the Origin of
 In
his book, Darwin:
 proposed
a mechanism for evolution
called natural selection.
 presented evidence that evolution has
been taking place for millions of
years—and continues in all living
Inherited Variation and Artificial
Members of each species vary from one
another in important ways.
 In Darwin’s day, variations were thought to
be unimportant, minor defects.
 Darwin noted that plant and animal
breeders would breed only the largest
hogs, the fastest horses, or the cows that
produced the most milk.
 Darwin termed this process artificial
Inherited Variation and Artificial
 Artificial
selection is the
selection by
humans for
breeding of
useful traits from
the natural
variation among
Evolution by Natural Selection
 Darwin
compared processes in nature
to artificial selection.
 By
doing so, he developed a scientific
hypothesis to explain how evolution
The Struggle for Existence
Darwin realized that high birth rates and
a shortage of life's basic needs would
force organisms to compete for
 The struggle for existence means that
members of each species compete
regularly to obtain food, living space,
and other necessities of life.
 The struggle for existence was central to
Darwin's theory of evolution.
Survival of the Fittest
The ability of an individual to survive and
reproduce in its specific environment is
Darwin proposed that fitness is the result of
An adaptation is any inherited characteristic
that increases an organism's chance of
Successful adaptations enable organisms to
become better suited to their environment and
better able to survive and reproduce.
Survival of the Fittest
 Individuals
with characteristics that
are not well suited to their
environment either die or leave few
 Individuals that are better suited to
their environment survive and
reproduce most successfully.
 Darwin called this process survival of
the fittest.
Survival of the Fittest
Because of its similarities to artificial
selection, Darwin referred to the survival of
the fittest as natural selection.
 In natural selection, the traits being
selected contribute to an organism's fitness
in its environment.
 Over time, natural selection results in
changes in the inherited characteristics of a
population. These changes increase a
species' fitness in its environment.
Descent With Modification
Natural selection produces organisms that
have different structures, establish different
niches, or occupy different habitats.
Each living species has descended, with
changes, from other species over time.
Darwin referred to this principle as descent
with modification.
Descent with modification implies that all
living organisms are related to one another.
This is the principle known as common
Evidence of Evolution
 Darwin
argued that living things have
been evolving on Earth for millions of
years. Evidence for this process could
be found in the fossil record, the
geographical distribution of living
species, homologous structures of
living organisms, and similarities in
early development, or embryology.
What do you believe?
Do you personally, believe in the theory
of evolution, do you not believe in the
theory of evolution, or don’t you have an
opinion either way?
Darwin Poll
The Fossil Record
 Darwin
saw fossils as a record of
the history of life on Earth.
 By
comparing fossils from older
rock layers with fossils from
younger layers, scientists could
document that life on Earth has
changed over time.
Geographic Distribution of
Living Species
Geographic Distribution of
Living Species
Darwin decided that all Galápagos finches
could have descended with modification from a
common mainland ancestor.
 Darwin’s theory was that species now living on
different continents had each descended from
different ancestors.
 However, because some animals on each
continent were living under similar ecological
conditions, they were exposed to similar
pressures of natural selection and ended up
evolving features in common.
Geographic Distribution of
Living Species
Homologous Body
 Structures
that have different mature
forms but develop from the same
embryonic tissues are called
homologous structures.
 Similarities and differences in
homologous structures help biologists
group animals according to how
recently they last shared a common
Homologous Body Structures
Homologous Body
Not all homologous structures serve
important functions.
 The organs of many animals are so
reduced in size that they are just
vestiges, or traces, of homologous
organs in other species.
 These organs are called vestigial
Homologous Body Structures
include the eyes of some cave dwelling
fish and mole rats, the leg and hip bones
found in whales, the teeth that quickly
disappear in duck billed platypuses, pollen
in dandelions, and the human appendix
and wisdom teeth.
Similarities in Embryology
 The
early stages, or embryos, of
many animals with backbones are
very similar.
 The
same groups of embryonic cells
develop in the same order and in
similar patterns to produce the tissues
and organs of all vertebrates.
Summary of Darwin's Theory
 Individual
organisms differ, and some
of this variation is heritable.
 Organisms produce more offspring
than can survive, and many that do
survive do not reproduce.
 Because more organisms are
produced than can survive, they
compete for limited resources.
Summary of Darwin's Theory
Individuals best suited to their environment
survive and reproduce most successfully.
 These organisms pass their heritable traits to
their offspring. Other individuals die or leave
fewer offspring.
 This process of natural selection causes
species to change over time.
 Species alive today are descended with
modification from ancestral species that lived in
the distant past.
Strengths and Weaknesses of
Evolutionary Theory
 Scientific
advances in many fields
of biology, geology, and physics
have confirmed and expanded
most of Darwin’s hypotheses.
 Evolutionary
theory continues to
change as new data are gathered
and new ways of thinking arise.
15-3 Section Assessment
On your own paper, please answer
questions 1 – 4 on page 386.
This will be for a grade.