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Cell Cycle & Mitosis
Review
Chapter 12 Campbell & Reese
Cell division in bacterial
cells is called
Binary fission
________________
Phase of the cell cycle in which
DNA is copied
S (synthesis)
Type of cell division in eukaryotic
cells that results in 2 identical
diploid daughter cells.
mitosis
Imaginary plane in a cell where
chromosomes line up during
metaphase Metaphase plate
This network of fibers that attach to
and guide the chromosomes apart is
Mitotic
spindle
called the ______________
Phase of mitosis that follows
anaphase
telophase
Phase of the cell cycle that follows G2
Mitosis (prophase)
Phase of mitosis that follows
metaphase
anaphase
Phase of the cell cycle that
follows G1
S
These structures at the
poles seen in animal cells
to which the spindle
fibers attach
centrioles
= __________________
meta
The cell above is in ______phase
G1, S, and G2 make up this
phase of the cell cycle.
interphase
This is also called the
“microtubule organizing center”
centrosome
Shortest phase of the cell cycle
in which sister chromatids
separate and begin moving to
opposite poles
anaphase
Plant cells can’t form a cleavage furrow
during cytokinesis due to their cell wall,
instead they form a _______________
cell plate
to divide.
This phase of the
cell cycle is
anaphase
_____________
Part of interphase in which the
cell grows to mature size and carries
out its job. G
1
Region where the two
chromatid copies are
most closely attached
centromere
=______________
kinetochore is a structure
The _________
of proteins associated
with DNA in this region to which
the spindle fibers attach
Phase of mitosis in which two
nuclei are visible, the nuclear
envelope returns, spindle fibers
disappear, and DNA becomes less
condensed
telophase
Shallow groove in an animal cell
membrane near the old
metaphase plate that forms
during cytokinesis
Cleavage furrow
How many chromosomes are shown in the
figure at the right?
4
How many chromatids?
8
Campbell Concept check 12.2
Dividing wall that forms during
cytokinesis in a plant cell to
separate the 2 daughter cells
Cell plate
During which of the phases of
Interphase does cell growth occur?
All phases G1, S, G2
Area next to the nucleus in which
the centrioles are found that
organizes the formation of the
spindle
centrosomes
Phase in which the nuclear membrane
disappears and the spindle fibers
attach to the kinetochores
prometaphase
Phase in which the chromosomes
line up at the equator of the
cell
metaphase
Phase after S in which cells make the
molecules and organelles needed for
cell division G2
This is called a
Cleavage
furrow
_____________
an animal
This cell is _____________
cell.
Plants don’t have cleavage furrows.
an animal
a plant
The proteins around which DNA
wraps to from a chromosome are
histones
called ____________
One of 2 identical arms
that make up a chromosome
chromatid
Phase of mitosis that follows
prophase
Prometaphase/metaphase
Phase of the cell cycle that
follows S
G2
What enzyme replaces
telomeres and is elevated in
cancer cells?
telomerase
Humans with an Xy karyotype are
________
male
male
female
The protective tips at the ends of
chromosomes that prevent loss
of information during replication
are called
_______________
telomeres
What happens to telomeres as
cells age?
They shorten
This phase of the
cell cycle is
metaphase
________________
Phase of the cell cycle cells spend
most of their time in.
G1 of interphase
This cell is in
__________
telophase
The cell above is a _________
cell.
Plant
animal
plant
You can see the cell plate forming in center instead
of a cleavage furrow.
Phase of the cell cycle where
cells spend most of their time.
They grow bigger and do their
job as body cells.
G1
List the phases of mitosis in order
starting with interphase
Interphase, prophase,
prometaphase, metaphase,
anaphase, telophase, cytokinesis
Disorder in which body cells
lose their ability to control
cell division
cancer
The spread of cancer cells to
locations distant from their original
site
metastasis
Cyclin dependent kinases (CdK’s)
_________________________________ are enzymes
that give the go ahead signals for cell division which
are present in cells in inactive forms until they bind
with a cyclin.
checkpoint
A ________________
is a critical control point where
stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cell
cycle.
Name the phenomenon in which crowded cells stop
dividing due to availability of growth factors and
nutrients.
Density dependent inhibition
DNA and attached proteins which is
less tightly wound in an interphase
nucleus is called________________
chromatin
Phase of mitosis in which nucleoli
disappear and chromatin begins to
condense into chromosomes,
centrosome is visible, and
mitotic spindle begins to form
prophase
The proteins whose concentration
fluctuates in cells which bind with
cyclin-dependent kinases (CdK’s) to
control the cell cycle
cyclins
Proteins released by certain cells
which stimulate other cells to
divide
Growth factors
In this part of interphase
following S cells make the
molecules and organelles
needed for cell division G2
The 2 copies of each chromosome
homologous
are called ______________
chromosomes because are the
same size,same shape, and carry
genes for the same traits.
Phase of mitosis in which nuclear
envelope fragments and
microtubules attach to the
chromosomes anaphase
Phase of cell division in which
the nuclear envelope reforms and
chromosomes begin to spread out
into chromatin.
telophase
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Interphase
INTERPHASE DNA is all spread out as chromatin
________________
and nuclear envelope & nucleoli
are visible
PROPHASE
________________ Chromatin condenses and
chromosomes are first visible
INTERPHASE
________________
METAPHASE
Made up of
G1, S, G2
________________ Chromosomes line up in middle of
cell
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Interphase
INTERPHASE
_______________ DNA is copied and cell prepares to
divide
ANAPHASE
_______________
Chromatid arms separate and move
to opposite ends of the cell
TELOPHASE
_______________
Chromosomes unwind into chromatin
& nuclear envelope returns
PROMETAPHASE
_______________ Nuclear envelope fragments &
microtubules attach to chromosomes
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Interphase
TELOPHASE
__________________
Two nuclei are visible
PROPHASE
__________________
First dividing phase
PROPHASE
__________________
Spindle begins to form &
centrosomes move toward poles
_________________
Cytoplasm is split between two
CYTOKINESIS
cells
TELOPHASE
__________________
Spindle fibers and centrosomes
disappear
Prophase
Metaphase
Anaphase
Telophase
Interphase
METAPHASE
__________________
longest dividing phase
ANAPHASE
__________________
shortest dividing phase
CYTOKINESIS
__________________ overlaps with telophase
TELOPHASE
__________________
Could also be called “reverse
prophase”
ANAPHASE
__________________
Nonkinetochore fibers elongate
the cell
S
G1
G2
G0
Mitosis (M)
Cytokinesis (C)
G0
_______
Phase of the cell cycle most body cells are in
S
________
DNA is copied
G2
________
centrosomes are copied
G
0
________
M
________
G________
1, S, G0
Cells leave the cell cycle and stop dividing
Division of chromosomes happens
Growth happens
S
G1
C
_______
G2
_______
M
_______
G2
G0
Mitosis (M)
Cytokinesis (C)
Division of cytoplasm happens
Follows S and cell makes the molecules and
organelles needed for cell division
Made up of telophase, anaphase, prophase,
prometaphase, and metaphase
During which stages of a cell cycle would a
chromosome consist of two identical
chromatids?
From end of S in interphase through the end of
metaphase of mitosis
Campbell Concept check 12.2
Compare and contrast cytokinesis in animal
cells and plant cells.
Both form two identical daughter cells but mechanism is different
Animal cells occurs by cleavage, which divides the parent cell in two
using a contractile ring of actin;
In plant cells a cell plate forms in the middle and grows until its
membrane fuses with the parent cell plasma membrane;
A new cell wall is produced from the cell plate
Campbell Concept check 12.2
Phase of mitosis where the
cytoplasm is split between two
cells
CYTOKINESIS
Radial array of short microtubules
that extends from each centrosome
aster
Type of cell division used by organisms to
grow bigger, repair injuries, and
replace worn out cells.
mitosis
Mass of abnormal cells
tumor
Kinases work by transferring a
phosphate group from a high energy
_________
donor molecule to another molecule.
Cdk’s are inactive unless
cyclin
_________
proteins are
attached
2 matching chromosomes that are
thesame size, same shape, and
carry genes for the same traits.
HOMOLOGOUS
Type of nuclear division that
produces 2 diploid daughter cells
that are genetically identical to
the parent cell
mitosis
Type of division used by bacteria
to reproduce
Binary fission
Name the proteins that become
active when attached to cyclins
which allow cells to proceed
past cell cycle checkpoints
Cdk’s Cyclin dependent kinases
The spread of cancer cells from the original
site to a new distant location is called
metastasis
___________________
A researcher treats cells with a chemical that
prevents DNA synthesis. This treatment
traps the cells in which part of the cell
Campbell Concept check 12.3
cycle?
G
1
Proteins released by certain cells that
stimulate other cells to grow are called
Growth factors
________________________.
Disease in which body cells lose
their ability to control cell
division
cancer
Repeating sequence of events that
cells go through during their lifetime
Cell cycle
Phase in which the nucleus
divides
mitosis
Phase in which cells grow and mature
and where they spend most of their
life
G1
Which complex (a cyclin + a Cdk) is acts as
the go-ahead signal for a cell to pass the G2
phase checkpoint and enter mitosis?
MPF “maturation promoting factor”
or “M-phase promoting factor”
is the signal to enter mitosis
Campbell Concept check 12.3
Phase in which the DNA is
copied
S or SYNTHESIS
Phase in which cells leave the cycle
and stop dividing all together
G0
Phenomenon in which crowded
cells stop dividing
Density dependent inhibition
Most animal cells must be attached
to a substrate such as a culture dish
or extracellular matrix. This is
anchorage dependence
called ______________
Somatic cells or body cells have 2
_____________
copies of each chromosome.
A cell’s genetic information is called its
_____________
genome
Reproductive cells like sperm and eggs which
have one copy of each chomosome are called
___________
gametes
or germ cells.
A cell takes the longest time going through
interphase
_______________.
A. prophase
B. prometaphase
C. metaphase
D. anaphase
E. telophase
F. interphase
Starting with a fertilized egg (zygote), a
series of five cell divisions would produce an
early embryo with how many cells?
32 cells
Campbell Concept check 12.1
How many chromatids are in a duplicated
chromosome?
2
Campbell Concept check 12.1
A chicken has 78 chromosomes in its somatic cells;
how many did the chicken inherit from each parent?
78; 39 from each parent
How many chromosomes are in each of the chicken’s
gametes?
39
How many chromosomes will be in each somatic cell
of the chicken’s offspring?
78
How many chromosomes are in a “set”?
39
Campbell Concept check 12.1
What is the function of non-kinetochore
microtubules?
Elongate cell during anaphase
Campbell Concept check 12.2
Identify three similarities between bacterial
chromosomes and eukaryotic chromosomes,
considering both structure and behavior during
cell division.
Each consists of a single molecule of DNA with attached proteins;
During cell division the two copies actively move apart;
After cell division, one copy ends up in each daughter cell
Campbell Concept check 12.2
Which of the following does NOT occur during
mitosis?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
condensation of the chromosomes
replication of DNA
separation of sister chromatids
spindle formation
separation of the centrosomes
B happens in interphase (S)
Campbell Self-Quiz
In the light micrograph below dividing cells near the tip
of an onion root, identify a cell in each of the
following stages:
interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase
PROPHASE
METAPHASE
ANAPHASE
TELOPHASE
REST ARE
INTERPHASE
Campbell Self-Quiz
In some organisms, mitosis occurs without
cytokinesis occurring. This will result in
A A. cells with more than one nucleus
B.
C.
D.
E.
cells that are unusually small
cells lacking nuclei
destruction of chromosomes
cell cycles lacking S phase
Campbell Self-Quiz
The drug cytochalasin B blocks the function of actin.
Which of the following aspects of the cell cycle would
be most disrupted by cytochalasin B?
A. spindle formation
B. spindle attachment to kinetochores
C. DNA synthesis
D. cell elongation during anaphase
E
E. cleavage furrow formation
Campbell Self-Quiz
The decline of MPF activity at the end of mitosis is
caused by
A. the destruction of the protein kinase (CdK)
B. decreased synthesis of cyclin
C C. the degradation of cyclin
D. synthesis of DNA
E. an increase in the cell’s volume to genome ratio
Campbell Self-Quiz
A particular cell has half as much DNA as
some of the other cells in a mitotically
active tissue. The cell in question is most
likely in
A
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
G1
G2
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
Campbell Self-Quiz
One difference between a cancer cell and a normal cell
is that
C
A. the cancer cell is unable to synthesis DNA
B. the cell cycle of the cancer cell is arrested in S phase
C. cancer cells continue to divide even when they are
tightly packed together
D. cancer cells cannot function properly because they
suffer from density-dependent inhibition
E. cancer cells are always in the M phase of the cell cycle
Campbell Self-Quiz
Vinblastine is a standard chemotherapeutic drug used
to treat cancer. Because it interferes with the
assembly of microtubules its effectiveness must be related
to
A A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
disruption of mitotic spindle formation
inhibition of regulatory proteins phosphorylation
suppression of cyclin production
myosin denaturation and inhibition of cleavage furrow formation
inhibition of DNA synthesis
Campbell Self-Quiz
Through a microscope, you can see a cell plate
beginning to develop across the middle of the cell
and nuclei re-forming on either side of the cell
plate. This cell is most likely
B
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
an animal cell in the process of cytokinesis
a plant cell in the process of cytokinesis
An animal cell in the S phase of the cell cycle
a bacterial cell dividing
a plant cell in metaphase
Campbell Self-Quiz
Increases in the enzymatic activity of some protein
kinases important for the regulation of the cell cycle
are due to
B
A. kinase synthesis by ribosomes
B. activation of inactive kinases by binding cyclins
C. conversion of inactive cyclins to active kinases by
means of phosphorylation
D. cleavage of the inactive kinase molecules by
cytoplasmic proteases
E. a decline in external growth factors to a concentration
below the inhibitory threshold
Campbell Self-Quiz
What phase is it?
Anaphase
What phase is it?
Metaphase
What phase is it?
Interphase
No chromosomes yet
What phase is it?
Anaphase
What phase is it?
Prophase
What phase is it?
prophase
What phase is it?
Telophase
What phase is it?
Metaphase
What phase is it?
Anaphase
What phase is it?
Telophase
What phase is it?
Anaphase
What phase is it?
Metaphase
THE END