01-04-04_classintro

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Transcript 01-04-04_classintro

Welcome to ES150:
Structural Geology
January 4, 2005
First Day Stuff
• Course Objectives
• Go over Syllabus
• Lab Schedule
• Course Calendar
• Waiver
• What is Structure About?
• Any questions about tsunamis?
• And on to…
Quick overview of the state of California
What is Structural Geology?
• Study of Forces and Stress that affect
and modify the solid earth
• Rock deformation resulting from that
stress (= strain)
– Plate scale tectonics (geologic history)
– Regional scale activity (terranes)
– Outcrop scale
– Microscale (minerals and fine rock fabrics)
What Structure Does
• Stresses are due to tectonic plate
motions
• Structures in Rocks preserve
information about past stresses
• Structural geologists correlate back
across time and different scales to
reconstruct paleo-tectonics
Economic Reasons to do this
• Metallic Ore Deposits often reside in ancient
continents collision zones and in fault
breccias
• Hydrocarbon resources travel along faults
and collect in the tops of folds
• Faults create hazards
• Rock failure studies are important to
infrastructure
• Geothermal heat in extensional faults can be
used to produce energy (with help from Ty).
Academic Reasons to Do this
• Understand Earth History - How have
the continents moved in the past?
• Understand Earth Processes - How do
mountain ranges form?
• Exciting field work opportunities!
Microscale
Measured Rotation
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncomp resse d) de com press or
are nee ded to s ee this picture.
2mm
Outcrop
Scale
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Measured Local Pressure
Local Stresses Over Large Area
Regional Scale
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Plate - Scale
Alleghanian Orogeny builds Appalachians
When North America hits Gondwanaland
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Giant Quake and Tsunami
12/26/04
http://www.ineter.gob.ni/geofisica/t
sunami/com/20041226indonesia/rupture.htm
Quake Location - First Rupture
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Moment (=energy) distribution
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
On
To
California
…
A quick
overview of
what
structural
studies
have
revealed…
TECTONIC
REGIONS OF
CALIFORNIA
KLAMATH
MTS
MODOC PLATEAU
SIERRA NEVADA
MICROPLATE
GREAT VALLEY
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
COAST
RANGES
TRANSVERSE
RANGES
BASIN &
RANGE
MOHAVE
DESERT
JUAN DE
FUCA
TRENCH
ACTIVE FAULTING
IN CALIFORNIA
SIERRA FRONT /
BASIN & RANGE
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
GARLOCK
FAULT
Pre-CAMBRIAN
(4.5Ba-570Ma)
ROCKS OF
CALIFORNIA
Pre-Cambrian California
QuickTime™ and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Warm, tropical, carbonate reef
Like this photo only no people and no coral yet
PALEOZOIC (570235Ma) ROCKS OF
CALIFORNIA
Paleozoic California
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TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Micro-continent 50-car pile-up
Imagine terranes accreting west-to-east in CA
MESOZOIC (23565Ma) IGNEOUS
ROCKS OF
CALIFORNIA
MESOZOIC (23565Ma) DEEP
MARINE SEDIMENT
MESOZOIC
(235-65Ma)
SHALLOW
MARINE
MESOZOIC CALIFORNIA
Central Valley
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Video decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Coast Ranges
Pre-Sierras
CENOZOIC (65MaNOW) IGNEOUS
ROCKS OF
CALIFORNIA
CENOZOIC
SEDIMENT
CENOZOIC SED.
CENOZOIC IG.
MESOZOIC SED.
MESOZOIC IG.
PALEOZOIC
Pre-CAMBRIAN
JUAN DE
FUCA
TRENCH
SIERRA FRONT /
BASIN & RANGE
GARLOCK
FAULT
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Animation decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
80 Million
Yrs to
Today
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Video decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
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