Which series of ionic compounds is decreasing according to their

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Transcript Which series of ionic compounds is decreasing according to their

Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following is NOT part of the definition
of a mineral?
A.
B.
C.
D.
It is naturally occurring.
It is a solid.
It has a definite color.
It has a definite chemical composition.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following is NOT part of the definition
of a mineral?
A.
B.
C.
D.
It is naturally occurring.
It is a solid.
It has a definite color.
It has a definite chemical composition.
Explanation:
Color is not a useful property for identifying minerals. Many
minerals, quartz for example, occur in many different colors.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following elements is the most
abundant in Earth’s crust?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Carbon.
Oxygen.
Silicon.
Iron.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following elements is the most
abundant in Earth’s crust?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Carbon.
Oxygen.
Silicon.
Iron.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The difference between cleavage and fracture is
A.
B.
C.
D.
cleavage occurs at planes of weakness, and fractures are random
breaks.
cleavage relates to the arrangement of atoms, and fractures are
random breaks.
cleavage relates to the arrangement of atoms, and fractures occur
at planes of weakness.
cleavage is a random break, and fractures occur at planes of
weakness.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The difference between cleavage and fracture is
A.
B.
C.
D.
cleavage occurs at planes of weakness, and fractures are
random breaks.
cleavage relates to the arrangement of atoms, and fractures are
random breaks.
cleavage relates to the arrangement of atoms, and fractures occur
at planes of weakness.
cleavage is a random break, and fractures occur at planes of
weakness.
Explanation:
Both cleavage and fracture become visible when a mineral
breaks. Planes of weakness depend on crystal structure.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The difference between cleavage and crystal form
is
A.
B.
C.
D.
cleavage represents how a mineral grows, and crystal form
represents how a mineral breaks.
cleavage and crystal form describe the same thing.
cleavage represents how a mineral breaks, and crystal form
represents how a mineral grows.
cleavage is a random break, and crystal form occurs at planes of
weakness.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The difference between cleavage and crystal form
is
A.
B.
C.
D.
cleavage represents how a mineral grows, and crystal form
represents how a mineral breaks.
cleavage and crystal form describe the same thing.
cleavage represents how a mineral breaks, and crystal form
represents how a mineral grows.
cleavage is a random break, and crystal form occurs at planes of
weakness.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
A mineral’s hardness describes
A.
B.
C.
D.
resistance to breakage along a plane of weakness.
resistance to breakage along a crystal face.
its tenacity.
resistance to scratching.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
A mineral’s hardness describes
A.
B.
C.
D.
resistance to breakage along a plane of weakness.
resistance to breakage along a crystal face.
its tenacity.
resistance to scratching.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
What most strongly influences a mineral’s
hardness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The geometry of a mineral’s atomic structure.
The strength of a mineral’s chemical bonds.
The color imparted by smaller atomic radii.
The number of planes of weakness.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
What most strongly influences a mineral’s
hardness?
A.
B.
C.
D.
The geometry of a mineral’s atomic structure.
The strength of a mineral’s chemical bonds.
The color imparted by smaller atomic radii.
The number of planes of weakness.
Explanation:
The stronger a mineral’s chemical bonds, the harder the mineral.
The factors that influence bond strength are ionic charge, atom (or
ion) size, and atomic/ionic packing.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The mineral that crystallizes first from a cooling
magma is the one with the
A.
B.
C.
D.
highest solubility.
lowest solubility.
highest melting point.
lowest melting point.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The mineral that crystallizes first from a cooling
magma is the one with the
A.
B.
C.
D.
highest solubility.
lowest solubility.
highest melting point.
lowest melting point.
Explanation:
Minerals with higher melting point crystallize first and melt last.
Solubility has to do with crystallizing from and dissolving in water.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Earth’s crust is mostly comprised of minerals from
which group?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Silicates.
Carbonates.
Sulfates.
Oxides.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Earth’s crust is mostly comprised of minerals from
which group?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Silicates.
Carbonates.
Sulfates.
Oxides.
Explanation:
Silicates are the most common mineral group, constituting 92% of
the Earth’s crust.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
What is the most abundant mineral in Earth’s
crust?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Quartz.
Calcite.
Mica.
Feldspar.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
What is the most abundant mineral in Earth’s
crust?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Quartz.
Calcite.
Mica.
Feldspar.
Explanation:
Feldspars come in many varieties, but taken as group, they make
up about 50% of Earth’s crust.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following best describes the
difference between rocks and chemical
compounds?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Rocks are chemical mixtures.
Rocks are solid, chemical mixtures.
Rocks are physical mixtures.
Rocks are solid, physical mixtures.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following best describes the
difference between rocks and chemical
compounds?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Rocks are chemical mixtures.
Rocks are solid, chemical mixtures.
Rocks are physical mixtures.
Rocks are solid, physical mixtures.
Explanation:
Because rocks are aggregates of minerals, they must be solid.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following is NOT a primary factor in
melting rock (i.e., generating magma)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Decreased pressure.
Addition of water.
Increased depth in Earth’s interior.
Increased temperature.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following is NOT a primary factor in
melting rock (i.e., generating magma)?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Decreased pressure.
Addition of water.
Increased depth in Earth’s interior.
Increased temperature.
Explanation:
It is true that temperature increases with depth, but so does
pressure. Increased pressure raises the melting point of rock,
preventing rock at depth from melting.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following is NOT considered igneous
intrusive?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Dike.
Lava.
Batholith.
Pluton.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following is NOT considered igneous
intrusive?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Dike.
Lava.
Batholith.
Pluton.
Explanation:
Lava is magma that erupted at Earth’s surface. It is also used to
describe the rock that forms from molten lava. Therefore, lava is
extrusive.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Coarse-grained igneous rocks occur because
A.
B.
C.
D.
lava intruded deep in Earth’s interior.
minerals cooled and grew quickly.
minerals cooled and grew over long periods of time.
some minerals are bigger than others.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Coarse-grained igneous rocks occur because
A.
B.
C.
D.
lava intruded deep in Earth’s interior.
minerals cooled and grew quickly.
minerals cooled and grew over long periods of time.
some minerals are bigger than others.
Explanation:
The more time available for crystal growth, the bigger the crystals.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Sedimentary rocks cover what percentage of the
continental crust?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75%
5%
67%
33%
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Sedimentary rocks cover what percentage of the
continental crust?
A.
B.
C.
D.
75%
5%
67%
33%
Explanation:
Although sedimentary rocks make up only 5% of Earth’s crust, the
continental crust is 75% covered with them.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The most characteristic feature of sedimentary
rocks is that they
A.
B.
C.
D.
are observed in great thicknesses.
are formed in layered sequences—strata.
contain fossils.
are made from unconsolidated sediments.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The most characteristic feature of sedimentary
rocks is that they
A.
B.
C.
D.
are observed in great thicknesses.
are formed in layered sequences—strata.
contain fossils.
are made from unconsolidated sediments.
Explanation:
Sediments—rock fragments, chemical sediments, or otherwise—
are always deposited layer upon layer, eventually forming layered
sequences.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Rock breaks down to form sediment via
A.
B.
C.
D.
erosion.
transportation.
sedimentation.
weathering.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Rock breaks down to form sediment via
A.
B.
C.
D.
erosion.
transportation.
sedimentation.
weathering.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The main producer of sediment is
A.
B.
C.
D.
biological weathering.
ice wedging.
chemical weathering.
physical weathering.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The main producer of sediment is
A.
B.
C.
D.
biological weathering.
ice wedging.
chemical weathering.
physical weathering.
Explanation:
Most rock is rendered to sediment by chemical reactions that
cause the rock to decompose. Chemical weathering is a rotting
process, just like the rotting of meat. The main difference is that
chemical weathering occurs via inorganic reactions, whereas the
rotting of meat is an organic process.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
How is erosion different from weathering?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Erosion is the process of removing sediment from weathered rock.
Erosion produces more sediment than weathering.
Erosion produces less sediment than weathering.
Erosion and weathering are different ways of saying the same thing.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
How is erosion different from weathering?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Erosion is the process of removing sediment from weathered
rock.
Erosion produces more sediment than weathering.
Erosion produces less sediment than weathering.
Erosion and weathering are different ways of saying the same thing.
Explanation:
Erosion is a removal process and involves transportation.
Weathering occurs in situ (in place).
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following is NOT part of the
lithification process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Compaction.
Cementation.
Sedimentation.
Deposition.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which of the following is NOT part of the
lithification process?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Compaction.
Cementation.
Sedimentation.
Deposition.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
All of the following occur during metamorphism
EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
melting.
recrystallization.
interaction with chemical fluids.
Changes in composition.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
All of the following occur during metamorphism
EXCEPT
A.
B.
C.
D.
melting.
recrystallization.
interaction with chemical fluids.
changes in composition.
Explanation:
Once melting takes place, igneous rocks form, not metamorphic.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Metamorphic foliation is
A.
B.
C.
D.
the same as sedimentary layering.
the perpendicular orientation of recrystallized minerals.
caused by the interaction with chemical fluids.
a layered appearance caused by minerals that grew in a preferred
orientation.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Metamorphic foliation is
A.
B.
C.
D.
the same as sedimentary layering.
the perpendicular orientation of recrystallized minerals.
caused by the interaction with chemical fluids.
a layered appearance caused by minerals that grew in a
preferred orientation.
Explanation:
The preferred orientation occurs perpendicular to the prevailing
direction of applied pressure and can cut across or obliterate
sedimentary layering.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which sequence of metamorphic rocks is listed in
the order of increasing metamorphism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Slate, schist, gneiss, marble.
Shale, slate, schist, gneiss.
Slate, schist, gneiss, migmatite.
Marble, shale, gneiss, schist.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
Which sequence of metamorphic rocks is listed in
the order of increasing metamorphism?
A.
B.
C.
D.
Slate, schist, gneiss, marble.
Shale, slate, schist, gneiss.
Slate, schist, gneiss, migmatite.
Marble, shale, gneiss, schist.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The rock cycle describes
A.
B.
C.
D.
the natural recycling of rock from one rock type to another.
the change from rock by weathering, erosion, and deposition.
the crystallization of minerals from magma to an igneous rock.
the movement of rock and sediment through the hydrologic cycle.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley
Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 23
The rock cycle describes
A.
B.
C.
D.
the natural recycling of rock from one rock type to another.
the change from rock by weathering, erosion, and deposition.
the crystallization of minerals from magma to an igneous rock.
the movement of rock and sediment through the hydrologic cycle.
Explanation:
B and C describe individual aspects of the rock cycle. The only
part of the hydrologic cycle capable of moving sediment (only one
part of the rock cycle) is surface flow in liquid water or ice.
Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley