Ch. 3 Atoms PowerPoint
Transcript Ch. 3 Atoms PowerPoint
Chapter 3: The Atom
A History of Atomic Theory & Basic Atomic Structure
Big Idea: Physical, chemical and nuclear changes are explained
using the location and properties of subatomic particles.
The Atom: From Philosophical
Idea to Scientific Theory
Democritus – 450 BC
All matter is made up of tiny, indivisible particles
Today, we define atom as the smallest particle
of an element that retains the chemical identity
of that element
What holds the
Aristotle – 384 BC
Aristotle rejected Democritus reasoning and proposed
that matter was a continuum composed of mass and
Marble (mass) Statue (form)
Later the simplest forms of matter were proposed to be:
Foundations of Atomic Theory
The transformation of a substance(s) into one or
more new substances is known as a chemical
Law of Definite Composition: a chemical
compound contains the same elements in exactly
the same proportions by mass (regardless sample
size or source)
Sugar: 42.1 % Carbon
51.4 % Oxygen
6.5 % Hydrogen
Whether you have a teaspoon or a truckload!
Foundations of Atomic Theory
Law of Conservation of Mass: mass is neither
created nor destroyed during ordinary chemical
reactions or physical changes
HgO Hg + O
401.2g + 32g
Law of Multiple Proportions: if two or more
different compounds are composed of the same
two elements, then the ratio of the masses of the
second element combined with a certain mass of
the first element is always a ratio of small whole
Dalton - 1808
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
All matter is composed of extremely small particles
Atoms of a given element are identical in size,
mass, and other properties; atoms of different
elements differ in size, mass, and other properties.
Atoms cannot be subdivided, created, or destroyed.
satisfies Law of Conservation of Mass
Atoms of different elements combine in simple
whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds.
satisfies Law of Multiple Proportions
In chemical reactions, atoms are combined,
separated, or rearranged.
Modern Atomic Theory
Not all aspects of Dalton’s atomic theory have
proven to be correct.
Atoms can be split into even smaller particles.
A given element can have atoms with different masses
Some important concepts remain unchanged
All matter is composed of atoms
Atoms are rearranged in chemical reactions
Atoms of any one element are never identical to
atoms of another element
The Structure of the Atom
The Discovery of the Electron
Atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains
the chemical properties of that element.
1897 - Joseph John Thomson’s cathode-ray tube (CRT)
The Discovery of the Electron
Joseph John Thomson’s cathode-ray tube (CRT)
Cathode Ray Tube
Scientists studied the flow of electric current in a glass
vacuum tube with electrodes at each end.
When connected to electric current the remaining gas
glowed forming a BEAM OF LIGHT.
The beam always originated at the NEGATIVE electrode
and toward the POSITIVE electrode.
The electrode is named by what type of particle it attracts
Cathode: Negative (-)
Anode: Positive (+)
JJ Thomson used magnets to deflect the beam
proving that particles had a negative charge.
These negatively charges particles were called
Major contribution to the atom:
Electrons are in all atoms!
Cathode Ray Tube Experiment
Robert A. Millikan - 1909
Continued Thomson’s work –
performed the Oil Drop Experiment
confirmed the negative charge of an electron and
measured the mass of an electron
The electron has mass, though 1836 x less than that of
soon to be discovered proton.
J.J. Thomson’s Plum Pudding Model
Thomson proposed that the electrons of an atom
were spread evenly throughout a positively charged
ball of matter.
Known as Plum-pudding model
Plum Pudding Video
The Discovery of the Atomic Nucleus
Earnest Rutherford’s Gold Foil Experiment - 1909
Gold Foil Experiment
Set up Gold Foil with a detection sheet around it.
Set up radioactive source- emitted alpha particles.
ALPHA PARTICLES shot at gold foil.
MOST particles went through the gold foil
But SOME particles BOUNCED back
Gold Foil Conclusions
The atom is made up of mostly EMPTY SPACE
The center of the atom contains a POSITIVE
Rutherford called this positive bundle of matter
Rutherford’s major contribution to the atom was
the discovery of the nucleus. The volume of this is
very small compared with the total volume of an
Rutherford’s Model of
atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10-10 m
nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10-3 pm = 5 x 10-15 m
Composition of the Nucleus
When two protons are extremely close to each
other, there is a strong attraction between them.
A similar attraction exists when neutrons are very
close to each other or protons and neutrons.
The short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton,
and neutron-neutron forces that hold the nuclear
particles together are referred to as nuclear forces.
Structure of the Atom
The nucleus is a very small region located at the
center of an atom.
The nucleus is made up of at least one positively
charged particle called a proton and usually one or
more neutral particles called neutrons.
Surrounding the nucleus is a region occupied by
negatively charged particles called electrons.
P, N, E are often referred to as subatomic particles.
9.109 x 10-31
1.673 x 10-27
1.675 x 10-27
Ions and Isotopes
Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus
Mass number (A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
= atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons
Isotopes are atoms of the same element (X) with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei
An ion is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net positive or negative charge.
cation – ion with a positive charge
If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons
it becomes a cation.
anion – ion with a negative charge
If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons
it becomes an anion.
Relative Atomic Mass
One atom is the standard – Carbon
Mass of other elements are based off of the standard
Carbon: 6 p and 6 n = 12 amu
Atomic Mass Unit
1/12 mass of Carbon atom
Periodic table lists weighted average atomic masses of elements
(like a GPA calculation)