Transcript Catalyst

Take Out
Pencil
Science Notebook, Open to white boarding
notes (page 36)
Take Out
Pencil
Catalyst Sheet
Science Notebook, Open to Chemistry cover
page
Catalyst
Use your reading from this
weekend to explain how the
argument could be made that
“Chemistry caused civilization”.
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Everything I Know About Chemistry:
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Everything I Want to Know About Chemistry:
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The Beginnings of Chemistry:
The Beginnings of Chemistry
460 BC develops the idea of the atom around 400 BCE
Democritus
He pounded up materials in his pestle and
mortar until he had reduced them to smaller
and smaller particles which he called
ATOMA
greek for not to be divided
(cut)
The Beginnings of Chemistry
Another
460 BCGreek philosopher, Heraclitus, suggested everything was
made out of fire
The world itself consists of a law-like
interchange of elements, symbolized by
fire. Thus the world is not to be
identified with any particular substance,
but rather with an ongoing process
governed by a law of change.
The Beginnings of Chemistry
Aristotle
460
BC announced that there were four elements, or basic
substances, from which all else was composed
Air, Earth, Fire, and Water; He
believed that everything else,
was a blend of these four.
Homework
Read and fully annotate “Matter, Elements, and
Atoms” reading on page 40
Add the 5 underlined words and their
definitions to your Vocabulary section
Exit Ticket
Why should the slope of your line of best fit in
the Circumference vs Diameter Lab have been
close to 3.14?
Take Out
Pencil
Catalyst Sheet
Science Notebook, Open to Vocabulary section
Catalyst
1. Describe the difference
between matter and mass
2. Describe the difference
between an atom and an
element
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Everything I Know About Chemistry:
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Everything I Want to Know About Chemistry:
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The Beginnings of Chemistry:
Chemistry
Chemistry is the study of the composition,
properties, and behavior of MATTER
The Beginnings of Chemistry
460 BC develops the idea of the atom around 400 BCE
Democritus
He pounded up materials in his pestle and
mortar until he had reduced them to smaller
and smaller particles which he called
ATOMA
greek for not to be divided
(cut)
Aluminum
An Aluminum Atom
How small is an atom?
40,000,000
It would take
aluminum atoms to make a 1 cm
line of aluminum
Element
What is an element?
What is an atom?
Atom
Element
An element is a
pure substance
that cannot be
broken down into
any other
substances.
Atom
An atom is the
smallest particle
of an element
that still has all
the properties of
an element.
An atom is composed of three main
subatomic particles
Atom
Subatomic
Particles
Subatomic particles are….
The smaller parts that
make up an atom
An atom is composed of three main
subatomic particles
Atom
Protons Neutrons Electrons
Protons, Neutrons and Electrons
are the building blocks of
atoms
Nucleus
The nucleus is the center of the atom, where the
protons and neutrons are located.
electron
neutron
proton
A proton has one positive charge and a mass
equal to one mass unit.
A neutron has no charge and a mass that is also
equal to one mass unit.
Proton
Neutron
+ Charge
Neutral Charge
What charge does the nucleus have as a whole?
6
C
Carbon
12.011
The name
of the
element
6
C
Carbon
12.011
The element’s
atomic symbol
The name of
the element
6
C
Carbon
12.011
The atomic number of the
element: This number tells you
the number of protons in the
atom.
The element’s
atomic symbol
The name of
the element
6
C
Carbon
12.011
The atomic number of the
element: This number tells you
the number of protons in the
atom.
The element’s
atomic symbol
The name of
the element
The mass number or atomic
mass: This number tells the mass
of one atom.
…which is approximately the sum
of protons and neutrons in the
nucleus, since each proton and
each neutron has a mass equal to
one mass unit.
6
C
Carbon
12.011
Using the beads on
your table, create
the nucleus of 1
Carbon atom
Draw that nucleus
in your notes
Take Out
Pencil
Catalyst Sheet
Science Notebook
Catalyst
Determine the number of protons
and neutrons in the nucleus of
one atom of each element
listed below:
1. Helium
2. Chlorine
3. Calcium
4. Bromine
5. Rubidium
6. Xenon
Remember:
atomic mass
- atomic number
number of neutrons
Atomic (Average) mass unit
6
C
Carbon
12.011
Number of neutrons must be
changing because we know
that protons don’t
Isotopes – Atoms of
the same element that
have a different
number of neutrons
from the average
Electrons
Electrons are located around the nucleus.
They are so tiny that they almost have no mass.
Each electron has a charge of negative 1 (-1).
Electron
Negative Charge
In a neutral atom, how does the number of
protons compare to the number of electrons?
A neutral atom has an equal number of protons
and electrons
So, to review…
Nucleus
Electron Cloud
Location
Tiny core in the center of the
atom
The region around the
nucleus; model looks much
like a galaxy in space
Charge
Positive
Negative
Relative size relationship
Diameter of a baseball
Chase Stadium
Proton
Neutron
Electron
Location
Nucleus
Nucleus
Electron cloud
Charge
Positive charge equal
in size, but opposite
to the negative
charge of an electron
Neutral
Negative charge
equal in size, but
opposite to the
positive charge of a
proton
1.673 x 10 -24 g
1.675 x 10 -24 g
equal in mass with
the neutron and
1800 times greater
than an electron
equal in mass with
the proton
Size
9.110 x 10 -29 g
1/1800 the size of
the proton
4
Be
Beryllium
9.01
The periodic table is an orderly listing of all the
elements, arranged from left to right and top
to bottom in order of increasing atomic
number
Review: what do the
numbers mean?
6
C
Carbon
12.011
The name
of the
element
6
C
Carbon
12.011
The element’s
atomic symbol
The name of
the element
6
C
Carbon
12.011
The atomic number of the
element: This number tells you
the number of protons in the
atom. And because, in a neutral
atom, the number of protons and
the number of electrons are
equal, it also tells the number of
electrons.
The element’s
atomic symbol
The name of
the element
Remember: Look at website! and this
6
C
Carbon
12.011
The atomic number of the
element: This number tells you
the number of protons in the
atom. And because, in a neutral
atom, the number of protons and
the number of electrons are
equal, it also tells the number of
electrons.
The element’s
atomic symbol
The name of
the element
The mass number or atomic
mass: This number tells the mass
of one atom, which is
approximately the sum of
protons and neutrons in the
nucleus, since each proton and
each neutron has a mass equal to
one mass unit, and the electrons
have virtually no mass.
The color: Depending on the periodic
table, will tell you what type of element it
is. In Carbon’s case, it is a nonmetal
The number of protons.
6
C
Carbon
The number of electrons.
The element’s atomic
symbol
The name of the
element
12.011
The number of protons +
the number of neutrons
7
N
Nitrogen
14.007
Using the beads on
your table, create
the nucleus of the
most common
atom of Nitrogen
Add the electrons,
presuming we are
creating a neutral
atom
Draw this is in your
notebook
Homework
Complete “Atomic Structure Practice” on pages
42 and 43 of science notebook
Use your Periodic Table in your planner if
necessary
Add isotope to Vocabulary Section
Exit Ticket
11
Na
Sodium
22.989
1. Determine the
number of protons,
neutrons, and
electrons in a
neutral atom of
sodium
Exit Ticket
36
Kr
Krypton
83.798
2. Determine the
number of protons,
neutrons, and
electrons in a
neutral atom of
krypton