Technological Advancement and Emission Control

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Transcript Technological Advancement and Emission Control

Technological
Advancement and
Emission Control
Dr. Badar Munir Khan Ghauri
Remote Sensing and Geo-Information Science
Institute of Space Technology - Karachi
Automobiles
1900: essentially no
automobiles
1920s: due to paved
roads and mass
production of automobiles
there was more travel by
automobiles than be
railroads
Health Effects Are
Extremely Serious
» World Health Organization
Concludes ~ 800,000 Premature
Deaths Each Year From Urban PM
» Numerous Studies Consistently
Link PM With Premature Deaths,
Hospital Admissions, Asthma
Attacks, Etc.
» No Evidence of a Threshold
» Ozone, NO2, Toxics Also A Serious
Health Concern
Why Are Fuels
Important?
» Fuel Constituents Directly Affect
Emissions
» Fuel Changes Can Immediately
Impact on Emissions/Air Quality
» Fuel Composition Can
Enable/Disable Pollution Control
Technology
Motivation For Improved
Fuel Qualities - Gasoline
Improved
fuel qualities
Reduced
emissions
Improved
air quality

Gasoline - Lead

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Gasoline –Sulfur

Hydrocarbons (HC)
Gasoline – Other

Nitrogen oxides (NOX)
RVP

Lead (Pb)
Benzene

Sulfur (SO2)
Olefins, etc

Polyaromatic
hydrocarbons (PAH)

Greenhouse Gases




Environmental
benefits

Improved
human health

Reduced
corrosion

Improved crop
yield

Less
acidification,
eutrophication
and forest
damage
n
Climate Change
Compliance with standards:
Improved fuels
•500 ppm needed for EGR
•500 ppm needed for DOC
•50 ppm needed for DPF
DPFs ceases to reduce PM emissions with fuels containing 150 ppm
sulphur
DPFs become source of PM emissions with 350 ppm sulphur fuel
Alternative Fuels:
•Diesel, Biodiesel, Natural Gas, Ethanol
•Combination of fuel and technology
Hybrid
Electric
The Three-way Catalytic Converter: A Familiar Technology ReEngineered for High Performance in Close-coupled and
Underfloor Applications
•Layered washcoat
architectures and
support materials with
high thermal stability
•Integrated HC adsorption
functions
• Mounting materials with
improved durability
• High cell density ceramic
or metallic substrates
• Insulation schemes for
heat management
Can Only Be Used With Lead Free Fuel
PM and NOx Reduction
Technologies
Majority of Engine Manufacturers will use
Diesel Particulate Filters and SCR to meet
US 2010 and Euro VI standards
from www.factsaboutscr.com
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Future Trends
Light rail transit (LRT)
-Less-massive than other rail systems (street cars
and trolleys)
-Trolley is an electric streetcar that draws power from
a live suspended wire
-1998: state legislature in Minnesota approved $40
million towards a light rail project in Minneapolis
Buses
-Buses are beginning to run more and more on
biodiesel and natural gas
-Ballard Power Systems of Vancouver has
developed and demonstrated the world’s first
hydrogen fuel cell-powered city transit bus
-Compressed natural gas vs. hybrid buses vs.
diesel buses
Hydrogen Fuel Cells
-Hydrogen is most abundant element in universe, easy to
produce
-Converts hydrogen and oxygen to water, heat, and electricity
-Less pollutants and emissions because not a combustion
reaction
-Safety is uncertain- H2 is highly flammable, hazardous to ingest
-Challenges include: cost; durability; size; air, thermal, and water
management; heat recovery systems
Electric Vehicles
-Energy from direct
connection to land-based
generation plant
-Chemical energy stored
on board
-Propelled by electric
motor
-Generator converts fuel
and repowers battery
Toyota Rav-4 EV: over
300 operating in US today,
collectively traveled over
1 million miles, reach 80 mph
Pros
-Saves money (gas)
-Uses recyclable
materials
-90% conversion
efficiency
-Better control
-Regenerative
breaking
-90% cleaner than
The GM EV1
gas-powered cars
-Eliminate smog checks, tune ups, oil changes,
gears, torque converters, differentials
Cons
-Fragile
-Sensitive to
contamination
-Require external
reactants such as
hydrogen
-Batteries require
unstable chemicals
and must be recycled
The Nissan Altra
Hybrid Cars
-Mix between gasoline-powered car and an
electric car
-Rising fuel costs and better designs are making
hybrids more and more competitive
Hybrids have smaller, more efficient gas engines
Gas engines on conventional cars are sized for
peak power requirement which is used by drivers
less than 1% of the time
Regenerative breaking—hybrid cars capture
some of the energy usually lost through heat
when a car breaks and stores it in the battery
Summary
It may be a long process, however:
» Improved fuel and technologies are very
important for public health, the environment
and climate change
» Because emissions in the transport sector
are growing rapidly this is one of many
important ways to reduce emissions.
THANK YOU