Disaster Management for Heritage Properties
Disaster Management for Heritage Properties
Disaster Management for
Vipin Kumar Rai,
Officer on Special Duty
Disaster Management Department
Govt. of Bihar
= (Hazard + Risk) x Vulnerability
= Potentially damaging physical
events, Natural or Manmade
= Probability of harmful
consequences or expected
= Set of conditions that increases
the susceptibility to the effect
“Disaster” definition in DM Act
1.Catastrophe, mishap, calamity or grave occurrence in any
area arising from
Natural or manmade
Accident or negligence, which results in
Substantial loss of
Damage or degradation of
Property or Environment
THE MAGNITUDE OF THE INCIDENCE COULD BE BEYOND THE
COPING CAPACITY OF THE COMMUNITY OF THE AFFECTED AREA.
Increasing frequency of disaster…..
• Growing vulnerability
• Rapid Economic development in Earthquake
and Flood prone areas
• Poor Governance and decline in Eco System
• Climate Change associated with occurrence of
more frequent and intense extreme weather
State wise list of World Heritage Sites in India
Kaziranga National Park, Assam
Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam
Mahabodhi Temple Complex, Bodh Gaya, Bihar
Humayun's Tomb, Delhi
Qutub Minar and its monuments, Delhi
Red Fort, Delhi
Basilica of Bom Jesus and other churches of Goa
Champaner-Pavagadh Archaeological Park, Gujarat
Group of Monuments at Hampi, Karnataka
Group of Monuments at Pattadakal, Karnataka
• Madhya Pradesh
Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi, Madhya Pradesh
Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka, Madhya Pradesh
Khajuraho Group of Monuments, Madhya Pradesh
Ajanta Caves, Maharashtra
Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Elephanta Caves, Mumbai, Maharashtra
Ellora Caves, Maharashtra
Konark Sun Temple, Konark, Orissa
Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan
• Tamil Nadu
Great Living Chola Temples, Tamil Nadu
Group of Monuments at Mahabalipuram, Tamil Nadu
Nilgiri Mountain Railway, Tamil Nadu
• Uttar Pradesh
Agra Fort, Agra, Uttar Pradesh
Fatehpur Sikri, Uttar Pradesh
Taj Mahal, Agra, Uttar Pradesh
Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National
• West Bengal
Mountain Railways of India, Darjeeling, West Bengal
Sundarbans National Park, West Bengal
Impact of Disaster on heritage properties
• Heritage properties can be exposed to one more type of disaster
• Climate change can also exposing Heritage, natural properties and
• Climate change may also increase impacts of disaster on heritage,
cultural properties through its effects on significant underline risk
factors. Any increase in soil moisture for example, may affect
archaeological remains and historic buildings, thereby increasing
their vulnerability to natural hazards such as earthquakes and
• A hazard could potentially change, degrade or destroy the aesthetics
and/ or the natural balance of the ecosystem of the heritage
Risk during the first 72 hrs. after a disaster
• Theft of collapsed or damaged fragments or movable objects in the
• Flooding may cause contamination through pollution and mould
• Risks arising from the surrounding environment or habitat.
• Insensitive actions by relief agencies or by volunteers (due to lack of
awareness), such as pulling down damaged structures of heritage
value or destroying the indigenous vegetation in the name of ‘life
safety’. During fire control, additional damage to the heritage
property may be caused by the water used for extinguishing the fire.
• Risk of making inappropriate damage assessment of heritage
property due to lack of prior knowledge or experience.
• Confusion due to lack of coordination and preparedness.
Damage to the property’s outstanding universal value during
emergency response activities.
Damage or pressure caused by displaced peoples, particularly
regarding camps of displaced peoples, their associated
infrastructure and their waste and energy requirements.
Pressure of development and illegal or uncontrolled
• For people
Injury, mortality or displacement of staff that can reduce capacity
for security, monitoring and enforcement.
Loss of livelihood sources linked to the property.
• For cultural sites
Looting and theft.
Enhanced rate of deterioration of damaged wood or stone.
Risk of the loss of authenticity or of falsification through
Water damage from firefighting.
• For natural sites (and some cultural landscapes)
Outstanding universal value and integrity
degraded through habitat loss and poaching.
Pollution from waterborne debris and
• For existing management systems
Site level office buildings and equipments may be
Site level staff may be affected.
Information needed to identify risk to
• Factors and process that may result in damage or
• Assessment of probability of occurrence of each hazard
• Geographical information on the location of the property, its
boundaries, its buffer zone, its immediate surrounding,
access, topography, etc.
• Geological, hydrological and meteorological information on
the nature of the climate, soil, fault lines (if any), water table,
surface water such as river, etc.
• Thematic maps of the area or region in which the property is
located, such as a hazard vulnerability map.
• Information on the history of different disasters affecting the
area or the property itself, obtain from historical records and
from specific agencies dealing with different types of disaster.
• Inventories and the current status of existing
management systems and disaster preparedness
equipment and facilities in the property, such as
for shelter, evacuation and rescue.
• Hazard-specific equipment should also be
evaluated, e.g. the different needs for floods, fires,
landslide, pollution events and disease epidemics.
• Local and traditional knowledge systems relevant
to disaster risk reduction.
• Complete an easily accessible directory of
agencies that will take action.
Examples-mitigation through flood control and
environmental regeneration: Venice city (Italy)
Disastrous flooding of 4th November 1966 in Venice (Italy)
Italy launch an action plan
to save Venice by developing
and approving special laws
for the cities, making
sizeable some and resources
available, setting up special
procedures and instrument
for the historic cities and its
Example- Integrating heritage in urban and regional
planning :- risk preparedness for historic city of Ayutthya
Flooded monuments due to incessant heavy rainfall in 1995
Several projects were
formulated at regional level in
Thailand including construction
of dams and reservoirs, grass
plantation along the banks of
major rivers, floodwater
retention projects, dredging of
waterways and removal of water
Example-mitigation through monitoring and early
warning system: glacial lake outburst floods in
Sagarmatha National Park in NEPAL
Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs)
Global climate change causes the melting of most mountain
glaciers leading to the formation and rapid expansion of
glacial lake. The 1977 flood destroyed park facilities and
tourist lodge located along the riverbeds. The 1995 flood
killed 20 people, washed away houses, cultivated land and
livestock and completely destroyed a Hydropower station.
Example-mitigation in the face of a potential El
Nino event and Climate change: Chan Chan
Archaeological zone (Peru)
The vast and fragile site of Chan Chan Archaeological zone (Peru)
Example of Repair and restoration of damage cultural
properties : Kobe (Japan) following the 1993 earthquake
• Accurate identification of state of damage.
• Appropriate retrofitting measures for improving seismic
resistance and retaining heritage values
• Special committee constituted to examine the repair policy for
• Committee members comprised architectural historians
specialist in structural studies and repair engineers.
• Committee determine the approaches for retrofitting following
the priority order-
Additions using traditional techniques and traditional materials,
e.g. Reinforcement of roof with palm tree rope.
Additions using traditional techniques and those derived from
them, and traditional and modern materials, e.g. reinforcement by
Carbon fibers sheets.
Additions using modern techniques and modern materials e.g.
inserting an Iron frame in the structure for load sharing
Replacements using modern technique and modern materials e.g.
through base isolation of the structure
Example : Traditional knowledge systems to
protect heritage properties
• Traditional knowledge system for earthquake resistant
constructions in Kashmir and Gujrat.
• Traditional constructions survived the devastating
earthquake of 2005 and 2001 respectivelyIn Kashmir earthquake traditional structures built using
local building techniques of TAQ and Dhajji Dewari
Traditional dwellings of the earthquake prone Kutch region
in Gujrat the Bhungas (Circular shape good at resisting
lateral earthquake forces) have also withstood the
Wattle and daub construction in Gujrat where wood is used
for reinforcement for the wall have prove to be very
Reasons we should preserve our heritage
• Architectural beauty is good for your brain. A relatively
new area of neuroscience known as neuroaesthetics says that
beauty in art and design makes us happy. scientists can track
brain activity when people respond to design and beauty.
• Historic buildings are physical links to our past. It's
not just about saving bricks, but about saving the layers and
layers of information about our lives and those of our
ancestors. Without that, we'd erase the stories of our past, as if
the people who came before us never existed.
• Historically significant buildings contribute to our
city's cultural and economic well-being.
• Heritage preservation is more labour-intensive,
which means more jobs.
• They're generally either places of great natural
points/achievements in human history and,
• The symbol of Pride of a Nation.
Vulnerability of Bihar
• 73% of its land area and 74% of population are
vulnerable to recurrent flood.
• 30 districts are in most sensitive seismic zone V
• Scantly Rainfall once in 3-4 years. Precipitation
in rainy season is not so consistent, hence once
in every 3-4 years 17 southern districts of Bihar
have to face drought like situation.
• Whole of Bihar is susceptible to Cyclone,
hailstorm, fire and boat accidents.
Achievement of Bihar in the field of
• Department of Disaster Management
Prior to 1977-78 Department of Disaster
Management in Bihar was primarily a section of
Revenue and Land Reform Department called by
“Relief and Rehabilitation”,
Separated from its mother department in 1979.
On 18.03.2004 vide Government notification the
name of department was converted as “Disaster
The nodal department responsible for
preparedness, co-ordinated response, relief and
rescue works in all type of disasters.
• Bihar State Disaster Management Authority has been established
vide notification no. 3449 dated 16.11.2007 and is now fully operational.
• DDMAs in all the districts have been notified vide Govt. notification no.
1502 dated 03.06.08. It is responsible for implementation of all government
• State Executive Committee has been established vide government
notification no. 1597 dated 25.06.08 under the chairmanship of Chief
• National Disaster Response Force
• State Disaster Response Force
• State Disaster Management Plan
• Standard Operating Procedure for flood
• Standard Operation Procedure for drinking water crisis
• Formulation of SOP for Drought and Earthquake is under
• Shatabdi Anna Kalash Yojna
• Standard Relief Norms(2014-15)
• State Emergency Operation Centre & Control Room
• Resource Mapping
Inflatable Motor boat
Fiber Motor boat
Inflatable emergency lighting system
Advanced life saving ambulances
NDRF/SDRF Battalions with all latest equipments for search
and rescue operations.
• Capacity Building Training programmes for divers, Community,
Motorboat divers, Life guards, Medical first responder etc