LECTURE 15

download report

Transcript LECTURE 15

Lecture 15
NATURAL RESOURCE PLANNING AND
MANAGEMENT
Dr. Aneel SALMAN
Department of Management Sciences
COMSATS Institute of Information
Technology, Islamabad
Recap Lecture 14
•
•
•
•
How to support an enabling legal framework
Nominal and Functional law
How to support implementation of CBNRM?
How to support CBNRM through
decentralization?
• CBNRM as deconcentration in combination
with delegation
Institutions Are…
“tools that fallible humans use to change incentives to
enable fallible humans to overcome social dilemmas”
(Elinor Ostrom 2005)
“the humanly devised constraints that structure
political, economic and social interaction. They
consist of both informal constraints (sanctions,
taboos, customs, traditions, and codes of conduct),
and formal rules (constitutions, laws, property
rights)” (North 1991)
Formal Versus Informal Institutions
• Formal institutions are usually based on
written rules/constraints, frameworks in which
human interactions take place.
• Informal institutions exist in every society,
class and community. These institutions are
based on cultural norms, traditions, customs
and taboos, usually based on unwritten, albeit
strictly implemented codes of conduct.
Environmental Governance and
Formal Institutions-Pakistan
• The State
– National Legal Framework and International
Environmental Obligations
– The Governance Nexus- Federal, Provincial and
Local
• The Judiciary
• The Civil Society
Environmental Governance and
Informal Institutions-Pakistan
•
•
•
•
The Panchayat
Goth Kath (Village Assemblies)
Traditional Conservation Practices (Kareez)
Ismaili-Based Institutions
Environmental Governance and
Informal Institutions-Pakistan
• Mosques and Madrassahs
• Village Organizations (VOs) and Women
Organizations (WOs)
• Informal Credit System
• Mohallah/ Neighborhood Savings Committees
Keti Bunder-Study Area
Keti Bunder-Study Area
• Three villages:
– Bhoori
– Tippun
– Haji Musa Jat
Extensive secondary literature review done.
Collection of primary data on environmental and climate
change impacts and adaptation using mix method
participatory approaches to find linkages between state
and local institutional responses to environmental changes
especially climate variability and human security.
Keti Bunder- Livelihood Patterns
•
•
•
Poultry, beetle leaf (paan) farming and growing banana and
coconut orchards inland. But due to the decline in fresh
water and relentless sea water intrusion there has been a
major change from agriculture and livestock to an almost
total dependence on fishing (which is now also under
threat).
Given the skills, age and economic situation people may
work as fishermen, boat owners, middlemen (beoparis),
helpers (khalasis), or boat captain (nakho).
For a few inland villages livestock is an option and they raise
camels. There are some households which are involved in
selling mangrove wood as a source of their livelihoods.
Environmental Security Threats: Changing
Climate Conditions
• Physical and Environmental Impacts
– Sea intrusion
– Intensity of storms/cyclones
– Changes in rainfall
– Temperature
– Mangrove cover
– Fresh water flows;
– Fisheries
– Biodiversity
Human Security Threat: Migration
• Keti Bunder has witnessed internal migration and
mobility within various villages due to sea intrusion
and subsequent changing livelihood patterns.
• Temporary migrations in 1999 and 2007 due to
cyclones.
• Villages Bhoori and Tippun have not seen any mass
out-migration over the years, but this is no longer
the case now due to changing climate.
Human Security Threat: Ethnic Conflicts
• Jaats switched from farming to fishing – use small
mesh nylons nets (katra) and this is crashing adult
fish populations.
• Memon and Syed caste are usually rich; they own
local businesses and agriculture. They also lend
money to poor fishermen and keep them in debt
traps.
• The Jaats have also increased their camel population
and grazing by these animals is damaging mangrove
forests.
Human AND Environmental Security Threat:
Lack of Implementation
• Formal Institutions
– Parliament passed legislation for the protection of
mangrove ecosystems. BUT
Human AND Environmental Security Threat:
Lack of Implementation
• Formal Institutions
– State has also imposed a number of regulations
regarding the type of fishing vessels and fishing
gears used by fisherfolk. BUT
Human AND Environmental Security Threat: A
Corrupt State
• Formal Institutions
– Sindh Assembly passed legislation for protection
of wildlife according to which illegal hunting of
certain species can lead to imprisonment of up to
2 yrs and huge fine. BUT
Legal state permits granted to dignitaries (Arab sheikhs) to
hunt the endangered Houbara.
Human AND Environmental Security Threat: A
Corrupt State
• Formal Institutions
– Pakistan’s oceanic waters divided into 3 distinct zones:
from 0-12 NM where small-scale fishing with motorboats,
cotton nets is permissible; 12-35 NM where larger boats
with finer nets permissible; 35-200 NM for large
commercial dragnet trawlers with ‘mother’ and
‘offspring’ boats. BUT
– Fishing is banned during June-July, as this is the period
when fish stock is re-generated (i.e. bred and hatched) in
mangrove swamps on coastline. BUT
Strengthening Human Security and
Environmental Governance
• Informal Institutions
– Maintain band of natural saltwater tolerant
mangrove plantations between the mudflats and
sea
Strengthening Human Security and
Environmental Governance
• Informal Institutions
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
Tying ropes around huts.
Strong anchors for boats.
Mohallah savings by women.
Storage.
Communal pooling.
Local festivals, songs.
Risk communication: Mobile phones and radios.
Strengthening Human Security and
Environmental Governance
– Role of non-government organizations
– CBOs
– Women Organizations
– Village Communities
– Community-led mangrove and vegetation
plantation
– Role of maulvi
– Skill diversification:
» Farmer Field School
» Women Vocational Center
Construction
Construction
Sources of Energy
•
•
•
Kerosene and diesel lamps
have been major source
for lighting purposes in
creeks.
Bhoori and Tippun: wind
turbines and solar panels
installed for electricity.
10 acres of land being
converted into biofuel
nurseries by planting
Jatropha and castor oil in
KB.
Sources of Energy
Mangrove Plantations
Recommendations
• Third path for development, one that relies
on the ability of human institutions to solve
basic needs. (Ostrom 1990, 2009)
• Understanding the functioning of local
cultures and institutions. (Kapoor 2004)
• Learning to learn from below. (Spivak)
• +ive impact of institutions on NRM, CCA. (Agrawal
et al. 2008; Agarwal, 2010; Ostrom, 2009).
29
Recommendations
Adaptation, Institutions and Livelihoods (AIL) Framework
• Building local institutional partnerships &
supporting local self-organization:
– Defining their functions like information gathering,
dissemination; resource allocation, mobilization;
capacity building; leadership; inter-communication
set-up/networking with other institutions.
– NGOs can be incubators (with exit strategies) for
local institutions.
30
Climate Change Impacts
Social Economic Cultural
Environmental
Institutions
shape
Risks and Impacts
Social Ecological Context
Households
Sustainable Adaptation Practices
Mobility
Communal Pooling
Storage
Diversification
Exchange
Formal, civil, private
institutions
mediate, shape
strengthen/research
Local institutions
Participation
Empowerment
Communication
Integration
Coordination
Capacity Building
Practices
External
Interventions/
International
Institutions
Technology Funds
Expertise
Recommendations
• Harmonizing state water and fishing policies.
• Alternative energy, skill/employment
diversification.
THANK YOU