Climate and Climate Change

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Transcript Climate and Climate Change

Climate and Climate Change
Table of Contents
What Causes Climate?
Climate Regions
Long-Term Changes in Climate
Global Changes in the Atmosphere
Climate and Climate Change - What Causes Climate?
World Temperature Zones
Based on latitude, Earth’s surface can be divided into a
tropical zone, two temperate zones, and two polar zones.
Climate and Climate Change - What Causes Climate?
Ocean Currents
Ocean currents have a significant effect on marine climates
around the world.
Climate and Climate Change - What Causes Climate?
Rain Shadow
A mountain range can form a barrier to the movement of air
masses and influence where precipitation falls.
Climate and Climate Change - What Causes Climate?
Monsoons
In a summer monsoon, wind blows from the ocean onto land.
In the winter, the monsoon reverses and blows from land to
the ocean.
Climate and Climate Change - What Causes Climate?
Percentages
Light from the sun strikes Earth’s surface at different angles.
An angle is made up of two lines that meet at a point. Angles
are measured in degrees. A full circle has 360 degrees.
When the sun is directly overhead near the equator, it is at an
angle of 90º to Earth’s surface. A 90º angle is called a right
angle. What percentage of a circle is it?
A 90º angle is 25% of a full circle.
Climate and Climate Change - What Causes Climate?
Percentages
Practice Problem
Earth’s axis is tilted at an angle of 23.5º. About what
percentage of a right angle is this?
It is about 26.1 percent of a right angle.
Climate and Climate Change - What Causes Climate?
The Seasons
The seasons are caused by the tilt of Earth’s axis as Earth
travels around the sun.
Climate and Climate Change - What Causes Climate?
Seasons Activity
Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and
access Active Art about the seasons.
Climate and Climate Change - What Causes Climate?
Building Vocabulary
After you read the section, reread the paragraphs that contain
definitions of Key Terms. Use what you have learned to write
a meaningful sentence using each Key Term.
Key Terms:
climate
temperate
leeward
zone
marine climate
monsoon
microclimate
continental
climate
tropical zone
windward
polar zone
Examples:
The landrefers
Climate
Between
on
thethe
tropical
toleeward
the zones
average,
side
and
ofyear-after-year
the
the polar
mountains—
zones are
conditions
the
downwind—is
temperate
of temperature,
inzones.
a rain shadow.
precipitation, winds, and
clouds
in land
an area.
Northand
America,
South America,
andregion
Europe
have
mild
Sea
breezes
over a large
that
change
marine
climates,
with relatively
mildthat
winters
cool
direction
withwith
the seasons
are called
monsoons.
A small area
climate
conditions
differand
from
summers.
those around it may have its own microclimate.
Continental
have
more
The tropical climates
zone is the
area
nearextreme
the equator,
temperatures
marine
between aboutthan
23.5º
north climates.
latitude and 23.5º south
latitude.
Rain or snow falls on the windward side of the
These
polarthe
zones
mountains,
side extend
the windfrom
hits.about 66.5º to 90º
north and 66.5º to 90º south latitudes.
Climate and Climate Change
End of Section:
What Causes
Climate?
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Climate Graphs
A graph of average temperature (left) can be combined with
a graph of average precipitation (middle) to form a climate
graph. These graphs are for a tropical wet-and-dry region.
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Climate Regions
Climate regions are
classified according to a
combination of temperature
and precipitation. Climates
in highland regions change
rapidly as altitude changes.
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Climate Regions
Climate regions are classified
according to a combination of
temperature and precipitation.
Climates in highland regions
change rapidly as altitude
changes.
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Dry Climates
Dry climates include arid and semiarid climates. Albuquerque,
New Mexico, has an arid climate.
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Temperate Marine Climates
There are three types of temperate marine climates: marine
west coast, humid subtropical, and Mediterranean. Eugene,
Oregon, has a marine west coast climate.
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Temperate Marine Climates
Santa Barbara, on the coast of southern California, has a
Mediterranean climate. Mild temperatures throughout the
year make the area ideal for growing olives and citrus fruits.
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Temperate Continental Climates
Temperate continental climates include humid continental
and subarctic climates. Subarctic climates have cool
summers and cold winters. Anchorage, Alaska, has a
subarctic climate.
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Polar Climates
Polar climates include ice cap and tundra climates. The
tundra climate region stretches across northern Alaska,
Canada, and Russia.
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Comparing and Contrasting
As you read, compare and contrast the six main climate
regions by completing a table like the one below.
Climate Region
Precipitation
Temperature
Tropical rainy
Heavy precipitation
Hot
Dry
Little rainfall
Hot or Cold
Temperate marine
Dry to rainy, depending
on season and location
Cool to hot, depending
on season and location
Temperate
continental
Light to moderate rainfall
Cold to hot, depending
on season and location
Polar
Dry
Cold
Highlands
Wetter than nearby
lowlands
Cooler than nearby
lowlands
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Climate Regions
Click the Video button to watch a movie about
climate regions.
Climate and Climate Change - Climate Regions
Links on Climates of the World
Click the SciLinks button for links on climates of the world.
Climate and Climate Change
End of Section:
Climate Regions
Climate and Climate Change - Long-Term Changes in Climate
Ice Ages
The map shows the parts of North America that were
covered by glaciers 18,000 years ago. On the steppe near
the glaciers lived many mammals that are now extinct,
including woolly mammoths.
Climate and Climate Change - Long-Term Changes in Climate
Ice Ages and Temperature
The graph shows the estimated
average worldwide temperature
over the last 350,000 years.
During this time, cold glacial
periods (blue) alternated with
warmer interglacial periods
(pink).
Climate and Climate Change - Long-Term Changes in Climate
Ice Ages and Temperature
Reading Graphs:
What does the x-axis of the
graph represent? What does
the y-axis represent?
Number of years ago,
estimated average global
temperature in degrees
Celsius
Climate and Climate Change - Long-Term Changes in Climate
Ice Ages and Temperature
Interpreting Data:
What pattern do you see in
these data? How would you
explain this pattern?
Periodic ups and down in
average global temperature;
the temperature changes
represent ice ages and
warmer times in between.
These changes may have
been caused by changes in
Earth’s position in space.
Climate and Climate Change - Long-Term Changes in Climate
Ice Ages and Temperature
Predicting:
Based on the pattern over the
last 350,000 years, predict
how global temperature will
change in the future.
The pattern probably will
continue. Global
temperatures are relatively
high now, so they may
decrease in the future, all else
equal. Earth eventually will
have another ice age.
Climate and Climate Change - Long-Term Changes in Climate
Moving Continents
The continents have moved over millions of years. These
movements have resulted in climate changes.
Climate and Climate Change - Long-Term Changes in Climate
Continental Drift Activity
Click the Active Art button to open a browser window and
access Active Art about continental drift.
Climate and Climate Change - Long-Term Changes in Climate
Identifying Supporting Evidence
As you read, identify the evidence that is used to show that
climates change.
Evidence
Tree rings
Hypothesis
Climate change
Pollen
Evidence of past
glaciers
Climate and Climate Change
End of Section:
Long-Term
Changes in
Climate
Climate and Climate Change - Global Changes in the Atmosphere
Greenhouse Effect
Sunlight enters a greenhouse and is absorbed. The interior
of the greenhouse radiates back energy in the form of
infrared radiation, or heat. Much of the heat is trapped and
held inside the greenhouse, warming it.
Climate and Climate Change - Global Changes in the Atmosphere
Global Warming
Scientists think that an increase in carbon dioxide in the air is
a major factor in global warming.
Climate and Climate Change - Global Changes in the Atmosphere
The Ozone Hole
Chemicals produced by humans have damaged the ozone
layer. A large are of reduced ozone, or ozone hole, has been
created over Antarctica.
Climate and Climate Change - Global Changes in the Atmosphere
Asking Questions
Before you read, preview the red headings. Ask a what or
how question for each heading. As you read, write answers
to your questions.
Questions
What is the greenhouse
effect?
Answers
The process by which
gases in Earth’s
atmosphere trap solar
energy
Why is ozone depletion a
concern?
A decrease in ozone in the
stratosphere causes more
ultraviolet light, which is
harmful, to reach Earth’s
surface.
Climate and Climate Change - Global Changes in the Atmosphere
The Greenhouse Effect
Click the Video button to watch a movie about
the greenhouse effect.
Climate and Climate Change - Global Changes in the Atmosphere
More on the Greenhouse Effect
Click the Planet Diary button for an activity about
the greenhouse effect.
Climate and Climate Change
End of Section:
Global Changes
in the
Atmosphere
Climate and Climate Change
Graphic Organizer
Climate
is determined by
Temperature
Precipitation
is affected by
is affected by
Altitude
Latitude
Distance
from water
Ocean
currents
Prevailing
winds
Mountain
ranges
Climate and Climate Change
End of Section:
Graphic Organizer