PNC 2011 morakot

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Transcript PNC 2011 morakot

Climate Change
Technology Needs Assessments for Thailand
:Adaptation in Agricultural Sector
Morakot Tanticharoen
National Science and Technology Development Agency , Thailand
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Year 2010 (GDP = 7.8 %)
GDP Composition by Sector
(2009)
Agriculture:
Services:
Industries:
11 %
55 %
34 %
Labor Force by Occupation
Agriculture
Services
Industries
 40 %
 43 %
 17 %
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In 2010:
flood damaged more than 1.76 million
hectares causing the government to
approve approximately 550 million
USD to help flood victims.
In 2011 ( 10 Oct):
flood damaged more than 1.4 million
hectares.
November 2010 and June 2011
over 39 provinces in Thailand were
experiencing drought, causing the
government to allocate a budget of
more than 13 million USD to relieve
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the problem
In 2010 drought exacerbated the pandemic situation, damaging
approximately 1 million hectares of cassava plantation and causing
a 20-25% reduction in yields (Winotai, 2011).
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Food Crisis????
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Source: Stephen A. Goff and John M. Salmeron, 2004.
Scientific American October 2009,
Volume 301 No. 4
Biotech’s Plans to Sustain
Agriculture
Biotechnology: new genes insertion
and new traits; DNA marker assisted
breeding
Agronomic practices: precision
agriculture based on remote sensing and
global positioning, new equipment for
irrigation and new planting technology
Drought tolerance and nitrogen-use
efficiency (water-optimized product,
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reductions in nitrogen fertilizer use)
Process of Technology Needs Assessment & Action plans
Experts
& Stakeholders
Experts
& Stakeholders
Subsector
Identification
Technology Needs
Assessment
(Prioritized)
Literature
review
Literature
review
Barrier analysis
(capability, accessibility, policy, law & regulation,
social perception, user, etc.)
Experts
& Stakeholders
& National
Consultation
Technology Action Plans
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Thailand’s Agriculture and Food
: Facts and Figures
Ranked 12th in the world food exporter (2010)
Rice
Cassava
Sugar
Shrimp
Market share (%)
28.19
33.80
6.12
20.37
Rank
1
1
2
1
Farmers involved
3.7 M
400,000
200,000
25,0008
+ Potential Benefit /
Opportunity loss
+ Cost-benefit/
Cost-effectiveness
Criteria for
prioritize technology
Technology capability
+ R&D and technology
based capability
+ Technology absorption
+ Technology diffusion
Policy and Regulation
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Prioritizing technologies (Stakeholder meeting)
Crop
Improvement
Further prioritizing technologies (Public hearing)
Forecasting
and Early
Warning
Precision
Farming
Tech. capability—3 levels
Barriers
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Solutions
Crop Improvement
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Gene Pyramiding
MAS and Backcross
Breeding
Super Jasmine Rice
Currently take 6
years for new rice
varieties to be
developed by using
MAS
DT + SUB + BB + BL + BPH + ST
DT + SUB + BB + BL
DT + SUB
DT
SUB
drought
flood
BB + BL + BPH + ST
BB + BL
BB
BPH + ST
BL
bacterial
blight
BPH
ST
brown plant
hoppers salinity
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Examples of current work on Marker Assisted Selection (MAS)
TT & commercialize
Field Trial &
Demonstration
R&D
 Use of MAS in rice
breeding with a quality
for flood/ drought/pest
tolerance or nonphotoperiod sensitivity
 Implementation of gene
pyramiding to improve
rice breeds
 Preliminary screening of
wild crop relatives to
identify target traits to
adapt to climate change
 Rice breeds that
can resistance/
tolerance to
bacterial blight,
brown plant
hoppers, salinity,
or drought are now
in a multi-location
and regional trial
study as well as
production
demonstration in
farmers’ fields
 Promote the implementation
of MAS for rice breeds in the
Mekong region
 Thailand’s “Molecular Rice
Breeding Program for the
Mekong Region”
KDML 105
submergence tolerance
 Some rice varieties are
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available for farmer
Transfer flood
tolerance trait
into other rice
varieties
Flooding for 12 days
After flooding
“Chonlasit submergence tolerance” which have been transferred to
farmers in Authaya, Chainat, Angthong, and Uttaradit
It can survive under the water for upto 2 weeks after the occurrence of
flash flooding off-season rice. Homcholasit rice (KDML 105 submergence
tolerance) can be providing yield of 3 tons per hectare.
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Barrier
Technology capability
 MAS’ s currently limited to some
varieties of rice (KDML105,RD6) Other
crops have undergone less research
Human resources
 Shortage of plant breeders, molecular
breeders, physiologists, plant
pathologists and entomologists
Solution
Technology capability
 Promote research and development on
MAS
 Research collaboration with the
international research institutes, private
companies and networks
 Transfer MAS technology to plant
breeders by collaboration between
government to government and public
private
Human resources
 Human resource development by
collaboration with international institutes
 Formulate courses on plant Marker
Assisted Selection (MAS)
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Barrier
Infrastructure
 Lack of medium-long term seed bank
 Lack of throughput screening facilities
includes genotypic and phenotypic
screening
Policy
 access to genetic resources through
increased interdependency is limited due
to international agreements and
countries’ s environment policy
Solution
Infrastructure
 Establish a national and regional network
of germplasm bank
 Invest a high throughput phenotyping
and genotyping screening facility to
increase the efficiency of crop
improvement
Policy
 Request international organization such as
FAO, CGIAR to ease access to more
genetic resource materials
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Examples of current work on genetic modification of plants
TT & commercialize
Field Trial &
Demonstration
R&D
 development of papayas
resistant to the papaya
ringspot virus (PRSV)
 R&D on plant
transformation in
cassava, sugarcane, rice
and orchid
 only the virus PRSV
resistant papayas went
to field trial in 1997.
 in 2001, experiments
involving GM plant were
put on hold following a
decision by the cabinet
 Thailand’s Biosafety
Guideline, initiated in
1992, cover areas of
r&d, field testing, and
commercialization
 Thailand is yet to trade
genetically modified
plants, except for
research purposes
 National Biosafety Act
has been approved by
the cabinet and is now
under consideration by
the Office of the Council
of State of Thailand
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Barrier
 Successful plant transformation has
been limited to few plant species due
to lack of government support
 Traits, genetic engineering is covered
by patents
Solution
 Need the policy support to confine field
trials of locally developed GM products
 Arrange various activities to promote
public awareness in science and
regulation of GMOs
 Request assistance of international
organizations to negotiate the use of
licensed genes and technologies
 Work with international organizations
such as ISAAA
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Forecasting and Early
Warning
Data
 Climate patterns
 Pest and disease
outbreaks
 Past yields
Simulation Model
Target
 Forecast weather and
pest/ disease outbreaks
 Reduce the risk of damage
 Select the right crops
based on specific planting
time and crop cycle
Warning System (rapid emergency response)
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Examples of current work on Forecasting & Early Warning
TT & commercialize
Field Trial &
Demonstration
R&D
 Basic data collection to
underpin forecasting models
in the future
 Decision Support System for
Agrotechnology Transfer
(DSSATT) to predict impacts
of climate change on various
crops such as rice, cassava,
and sugarcane
 A brown plant hopper pest
prediction and warning
system
 Aquaculture Information
System to predict the
growth of shrimps under
various climatic conditions
 Spatial modeling of land
suitability evaluation for
rubber plantation in
Northeast Thailand
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Barrier
Technology capability
 Lack of forecasting tools for biological
and physical data, weather condition
 Limitation of pest and disease
databases
 Limitation on data accessibility and
data redundancy
Solution
Technology capability
 Encourage cooperation between
simulation modelers and biologists to
develop a model/ system using biological
data
 Develop a simulation model with a scale
suited for Thailand’s geographic areas
 Develop unified databases that use the
same standards both nationally and
regionally
 Establish National Spatial Data
Infrastructure: NSDI
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Barrier
Solution
Human resources
Human resources
 Lack of skilled personnel to develop
climate change simulation models
 Lack of linkage between skilled
personnel and relevant organization
 Collaborate with research institutes from
overseas to provide training on the
development of pest/disease simulation
mode
 Encourage public and private
collaboration to develop software
Policy
 no accompanying implementation plan
to deal beforehand with pest and
disease outbreaks relevant to the
agricultural sector other than that of
the bird flu
Policy
 Draft an implementation plan/ manual to
prepare for natural disasters that affects
the agricultural sector, especially
outbreaks of pest and diseases
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(learning from bird flu model)
Precision Farming
“ Planting the right seed in the right place
depending on the field conditions or having
the precise application of pesticides, nitrogen
fertilizer or other inputs. ”
Vice President,
Technology Strategy&
Development, Monsanto
(Scientific American, 2009)
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Precision Farming Technology; Sikhio Model
Sikhio model, Nakhon Ratchasima, demonstates the use of precision
farming technology (such as drip irrigation system and customized
fertilizer) to increase the productivity of cassava to about 30-40 ton/hec
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GranMonte Smart Vineyard
GranMonte Smart Vineyard project was piloted in 2008 by Mahidol University and
NECTEC. The project utilized an integrated set of technologies in a vineyard
Information Technology
Smart Viticulture
Networks of Multi-functional and Multi-dimensional Sensors
RFID, GIS, Radio-Controlled,
Robotics
Agro-informatics
Nanotechnology)
Farm managers can monitor changes in the farm via the Internet or by mobile phone
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Source: Mahidol University, NECTEC and GranMonte Vineyard
KMITL Fishtech Farm
Closed system for tilapia fish farming
 Real-time water quality monitoring
 Digital tags embedded in the breeding parents to monitor the
origin of breeds
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Source: Source: King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (2010)
Examples of current work on Precision Farming
TT & commercialize
Field Trial &
Demonstration
 Sensor technologies, pH
and DO, have been
developed and used in
 Use of GPS technology to
shrimp farming
identify coordinates/
locations best suited for
 prototype of Moisture and
sugarcane farming
pH sensors have been
R&D
 R&D on Integrated
system of sensor and
embedded technology
 pH and DO Sensor
have been transferred
to aquaculture private
company
used in sugarcane farming
 Demonstration project has
been establish
- Sikhio Model
- KMITL fishtech farm
- GranMonte Smart
Vineyard
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Barrier
Human resources
 Lack of necessary human skills
Solution
Human resources
 Provide farmers with precision
farming courses, focusing on how
to collect and analyze relevant data
to improve productivity while
reducing resource consumption
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Project Ideas
Formulation of related
courses through
international collaboration
and networking
TAIST Tokyo Tech
Technology Transfer
Seed
Company
University
DOA
Germplasm
Management
University
University
DOA
NSTDA
Plant
Breeding
Research
Center
DOA
Seed
Cluster
Diagnostic
Company
University
NECTEC
Thai
Seed
Trade
Association
Good
Quality
Seed
production
Seed
Association
Users
Seed
coating
technology
MTEC
Plastic
Company
Human Resource
Development
Support Thailand
as an ASEAN training hub
Seed
Company
Biotechnology
for
trait
improvement
DOA
Technology
Transfer
&
HRD
University
University
DOA = Department of Agriculture
Seed
Company
DOA
Diagnosis for
disease detection
and control
seed quality
Seed
company
Public to
Public
technology transfer to
local private players
Cooperative
Public-Private Partnership
International
collaboration with
leading academic
institutes, private
companies and ASEAN
networks
“The Molecular Rice Breeding
Program for the Mekong Region”
Infrastructure
Seed Germplasm Bank
Papaya Biotechnology Network
R&D
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THANK YOU
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