Environmental Affairs on national climate change policy process and

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Transcript Environmental Affairs on national climate change policy process and

Briefing to Portfolio Committee on
Environmental Affairs on national
climate change policy process and
international climate change
negotiations
th
16 September 2009
INTRODUCTION
• Climate Change international negotiations
• Climate Change Policy Development
Process
– International Position
– Adaptation – to the impacts of climate change
– Mitigation - national efforts to reduce our
greenhouse gas emissions
– Policy Process and critical path
INTERNATIONAL
• UNFCCC & its’ Kyoto Protocol – stalemate
since 2001 (USA not joining Kyoto)
• Since 2005 formal negotiations divided
into 2 Tracks (reconfirmed in 2007) –
– The Kyoto Track (for Developed country
mitigation targets beyond 2012)
– The Convention Track (Adaptation; Mitigation
- targets for USA; Developing country action;
Finance & Technology)
• Parallel political processes
2008 - COP 14 Poznan
Move into negotiating mode
• COP 14 – Poznan: important step to COP 15
• Progress on negotiation of Annex I emission
reduction targets for 2nd commitment period
• Readiness to move into serious mode of
negotiation in 2009
2009 – Parallel Political Processes
• Major Economies Forum (Jan – Jul 09):
• “Greenland Ministerial” (Jul 09) –
• G8 (Jul 09) – Limited progress - agreed on
– 2 deg C as maximum level of warming;
– on long-term global goal of 50% emission
reduction by 2050, with no baseline, no
midterm emission reduction target, and no
finance commitments.
– Rejected by G5.
2009 Formal Negotiations
• 3 formal negotiations completed (Apr, Jun, Aug)
• 2 sessions before Copenhagen: Oct & Nov
• Current status of negotiations:
– Convention Track: 4 building blocks: adaptation,
mitigation, technology & finance
• 1st and 2nd readings 200 pg text
• August: attempt to reduce text BUT discussions rapidly
reached CORE issues
– Kyoto Protocol Track: discussion of aggregate
and individual reduction targets beyond 2012.
• Pledges is only 13% (not in line with science 25 – 40%);
• Developing countries propose at least 40%
Positions of key negotiating blocks
• European Union: pledge 20% by 2020, & 30% if
new agreement; quantified Dev C mitig action;
silent on finance; soft on the USA
• Umbrella Group (Australia, Canada, Japan etc) :
low mitigation pledges, conditional on Dev C’s
commitments; weak adaptation; no finance;
differentiation among Dev C’s
• USA: differentiation among Dev C’s, trying to
create divisions in G77
• G77+ China (Developing Countries) ; United on
principles, divided on detail
Current SA Cabinet Position –
Two track approach
• Kyoto Track – amendment - predetermined
by Article 3.9 of KP;
• Convention track - a supplemental legally
binding instrument interpreted with
UNFCCC & KP
Legal linkage between Kyoto & convention
legal instruments to address the USA (as
non-Kyoto Party) & who must take legally
binding target comparable to Kyoto Parties
Current SA Cabinet Position –
Overarching Objectives
• Deal must:
– be inclusive, fair and effective;
– balance between adaptation and mitigation
– balance development and climate
imperatives.
• Shared vision that solving the climate
problem only possible if in the context of:
– Dev C’s priorities of food security, poverty
eradication and promoting development.
– Equity & differentiated responsibility for the
past but common responsibility for the future
Current SA Cabinet Position
• On Adaptation:
– A comprehensive international prog on
adaptation,
– Prioritise Africa - immediate & future impacts
– Upscaled finance, technology and capacity
building.
• On Mitigation:
– legally binding emission reduction commitments
for developed countries under the Kyoto Protocol
– USA-comparable, binding reduction commitment
& compliance under the Convention.
– framework for mitigation action by developing
countries, supported and enabled by finance,
technology and capacity building ie No legally
binding targets
Current SA Cabinet Position
• On Finance, Technology, Capacity blding
– Essential to build resilient economies and to
“leapfrog” to low carbon growth and dev
– Integrated Means of Implement mechanism
– Massively scaled up, predictable & sustainable
flows (1% of Global GDP – ie approx $400 bn
by 2020 of which 25% for adaptation)
– Mobilised from multiple sources – including:
assessed contribution, carbon market, bilateral,
IFI’s & private sector
– Governance – needs and country driven, direct
access, equitable distribution
Vulnerability of SA position
• Coal based economy (transition lag time)
• High emissions per capita & in total (top 20
emitter & contribute just < 50% of all Africa)
• Associated with so-called “major or
advanced developing economies”
• Relatively wealthy with institutional capacity
• Extremely vulnerable to impacts of climate
change
• Targeted by the USA for differentiation – (ie.
take commitments, no access to fin or tech)
National Climate Change Policy
Process
• Agreement that climate change is a key
challenge facing us now and into the
future.
• Adaptation to the impacts of climate
change critical issue
• Also need to reduce our greenhouse gas
emissions into the future
• Policy addresses all of the above
Consultative Process
• Working Group 3;
• IGCCand NCCC
• International, Economic and Infrastructure
Clusters
• Climate Change Conferences
• Draft policy documents to be consulted
widely
Critical Path
• Draft Zero Policy position that builds on
existing and current work (LTMS, 2nd
National Communication, Vulnerability
Atlas, Adaptation sector framework ,
sector and constituency consultations etc
by end September
• Green Paper April 2010
• White Paper end 2010
Adaptation
• Work in progress to develop adaptation
responses sector by sector and in
geographical areas (provinces and local
government)
• Key sectors include: water, health,
biodiversity, marine and oceans,
agriculture, disaster management, social
development
CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION SECTORS
COUNTRY ADAPTATION
RESILLIENCE + ACCLIMATION
OUR INDUSTRIES
Agriculture
Forestry
Tourism
Coastal Management
Business/ Insurance
OUR PEOPLE
Public Health
Human Settlements
Livelihoods
OUR RESOURCES
Land
Terrestrial , Aquatic, Marine
Biodiversity
Water
SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY: Research, Innovation
ECONOMIC INSTRUMENTS: Punitive and Incentives
INSTITUTIONAL & CAPACITY BUILDING: Public awareness, Operational Systems
Adaptation cont….
• Central importance of information in
adapting to impacts of climate change
effectively
• Key role of SA Weather Services and
Disaster Management
• Key role of Science and Technology
• National adaptation responses must be
downscaled to provincial and local levels
for maximum effectiveness
National Adaptation priority actions
• Effective climate change adaptation inputs, based on priority
sectors and unique geographical circumstances to national
policy development process
• Comprehensive determination of the national vulnerability to
climate change and SA’s adaptive capacity (adaptation
scenarios –cost of action v/s inaction)
• Ensuring the development of a climate change adaptation
implementation programme in key sectors and
• Ensuring the coordination and alignment of policies, strategies
initiatives , legislation and regulations of key adaptation sectors
Adaptation Cont…
• DWEA working in partnership with all
affected parties, including civil society and
science establishment
• Need for integration of climate change
issues into provincial and municipal
planning
• Need for information to ensure that current
plans take long term trends into account
Mitigation
• SA Energy Intense economy
• Highly dependent on fossil fuels
• Need to reduce greenhouse gas
emissions and at same time ensure that
economic growth and development are not
compromised
• LTMS – peak, plateau and decline
trajectory
Mitigation cont…
• Need to start now to put in place
interventions to reduce greenhouse gases
• Energy efficiency, renewable energy,
clean and new technology interventions,
nuclear energy, and economic and fiscal
instruments all needed
• Much opportunity and potential at
provincial and local government levels as
well as at national level
THE MITIGATION CHALLENGE – THE SOUTH
AFRICAN GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSION
PROFILE - 2000
THE MITIGATION CHALLENGE – THE
IMPLICATIONS OF GROWTH WITHOUT
CONSTRAINTS
CHALLENGES AND OUTSTANDING ISSUES –
2009 SUMMIT CONSENSUS
• Pursue “Required by Science” - <2oC
• Transition to a low carbon economy in the
context of equity, sustainable development, and
poverty eradication
• Maintain and strengthen the Science-Policy
interface
• Balance adaptation and mitigation – integrate
adaptation into development planning
• Local level climate resilience and access to
energy for the poor
• Scale up renewables and energy efficiency
CHALLENGES AND OUTSTANDING ISSUES –
2009 SUMMIT CONSENSUS
• Energy efficiency standards
• Government coordination and policy alignment
• Price on carbon – mix of instruments requires
further work
• Fast track CDM tax incentives
• Massively upscale public awareness
• Gender mainstreaming
• Mobilise resources including for R+D
THANK YOU