Mercado de Créditos de Carbono no Brasil

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Transcript Mercado de Créditos de Carbono no Brasil

Expert Group Meeting
‘Using Energy Management Standards to stimulate
persistent application of Energy Efficiency in
Industry’
Alexandre V. MELLO
Environmental Department – Climate Change
Brazilian Confederation of Industries - CNI
22 March 2007
UNIDO – Vienna/Austria
ISO 14064 research
Environmental Management on Climate Change
Investigating the attitude of Brazilian
organisations with CDM projects towards ISO 14064
Alexandre V. MELLO
MSc Climate Change and Sustainable Development
Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development - IESD
De Montfort University / UK
Overview
• Why a ISO 14064 study?
• Research
–
–
–
–
–
–
Objectives and Hypotheses
Literature Review
Method
Results
General Outcomes
Conclusions
Why a ISO 14064 study? (1)
• To investigate its acceptability;
• To identify its potential benefits and
barriers;
Why a ISO 14064 study? (2)
• Due to pressure from governments and
organisations to standardise GHG
requirements;
• Due to appearance of others GHG standards;
• It was published recently:
– Lack of academic researches (Probably this
is the first research);
– Lack of case studies (only 3 examples – draft
standard).
Why a ISO 14064 study? (3)
• Due to its specificity as ISO 14064 – Part 2
focuses on GHG projects (mainly CDM
projects).
Objectives of the research
• To identify whether the Brazilian
organisations with CDM projects will adopt
ISO 14064 and the potential motives and/or
barriers to implement it;
• To analyse how Brazilian organisations with
CDM projects manage their environmental
aspects / CDM projects and what their
experiences are with ISO standards / GHG
guidelines.
Hypotheses of the research (1)
• H1: Brazilian organisations with CDM projects
will be interested in implementing ISO 14064;
• H2: Brazilian organisations with CDM projects
that have experience on environmental
programs such as EMS and ISO certification
will be the most interested in adopting ISO
14064;
Hypotheses of the research (2)
• H3: Large Brazilian organisations with CDM
projects (International corporations, high
number of employees, high turnover) will be
interested in ISO 14064;
• H4: Since ISO 14064 is a voluntary and a
new standard to apply in the carbon market,
the Brazilian organisations with CDM projects
will not be interested due to the lack of
information and potential benefits of the
standard.
Literature Review
• ISO 14001 certifications worldwide and in
Brazil (high demand);
• Kyoto Protocol and the CDM worldwide and
in Brazil (high demand);
• Standards for GHG emissions accounting and
reporting (5)
• ISO 14064:2006 (mainly Part 2 – Projects).
Voluntary standards for GHG projects
GHG Protocol:
Corporate accounting /
Project quantification
WBCSD / WRI
Sep 01 / Nov 05
CCB standards
CCB Alliance
Oct 05
ISO 14064 (1,2,3)
ISO
Mar 06
Voluntary Carbon
Standard (VCS)
The Climate Group /
IETA
Mar 06 (ver 1 for
consultation)
Final: not published
Gold Standard Methodology
Group of 40 NGOs
May 06
Final: not published
Comparison of ISO popularity and other GHG standards
Term
Results
“ISO 14001”
8,830,000
“ISO 14064”
76,900
“The Gold Standard” carbon credits
47,800
“GHG Protocol Initiative”
975
“CCB Standard”
480
“Voluntary Carbon Standard”
60
Source: Google, 12/08/2006
Environmental Management
Climate Change
Schemes
ISO Standards
ISO 14000
Series
ISO 14001
(EMS)
ISO 14064
(GHG)
Kyoto Protocol
Others
schemes
EU scheme
ET
ISO 14064
Part 1
JI
ISO 14064
Part 3
Research’s
framework
ISO 14064
Part 2
CDM
Relationship
Application
LEGEND:
Literature review
Brazilian CDM Projects
Research/Analysis
Industries
Actions
Consultants
Survey
Conclusions
Verifiers
Potential
Effects
How many?
Environmental
Who? What?
When? Why?
Social
How?
Economic
Conclusions
Research Method (1)
• Information sources: literature and reports;
climate change and environmental experts
(WG09 – CB38/ABNT); and ISO
questionnaire reports;
• Questionnaire applied to 47 Brazilian
organisations that have 60 CDM projects registered (57) and requested registration (3)
in the UNFCCC – 11th July 2006 (applied by
email – 2 organisations by telephone);
Research Method (2)
• Results are from 6 organisations’ sectors
identified from the LR:
–
–
–
–
–
–
SASector (24 projects),
AWMSector (14),
LSector (10),
ECgSector (9),
RSector (2),
N2OSector (1),
Organisations are treated with confidentiality;
Results of the research (1)
• Response rate:
Number of
organisations: 47
Number of CDM
projects: 60
Returns related to
CDM projects
19 (31.7%)
Questionnaire
responses
15
Returns without
questionnaire
4
Results of the research (2)
• Section 1: the organisation
–
–
–
–
64.3% are large organisations;
33.3% of CDM projects are from SASector;
ECgSector and LSector (13.3% each one);
60% work independently.
Results of the research (3)
• Section 2: the EM and certification
– 66.7% have ISO 9000 and 53.3% have ISO
14001 certificates;
– 90% work with international certifier bodies;
– 80% have EM programmes (e.g. recycling
and EMS);
– 50% have energy efficiency program.
Results of the research (4)
• Section 3: the CDM Project
– 80% hired external consultancy;
– Most consultants work internationally with
offices in Brazil;
– 60% use KP CDM guideline to account and
verify GHG emissions;
– 40% believe that ISO 14064 and CDM
requirements could be integrated (e.g. GHG
emissions reduction becomes a requirement
of an EMS);
Results of the research (5)
• Section 3: the CDM Project
– Reasons to have developed CDM project:
• Reduce GHG emissions (60%);
• Improve environmental performance (53.3%);
• Only 6.7% developed their CDM project to attend
regulatory needs, government policy and promote
SD.
Results of the research (6)
• Section 4: the ISO 14064 Standard
– 46.7% declared the intention to learn more
about the standard;
– 26.7% have limited knowledge and have
already heard of it;
– 20% never had contact with ISO 14064;
Results of the research (7)
• Section 4: the ISO 14064 Standard
– Adoption:
• 46.7% do not have interest to implement it
in their CDM projects;
• 33.3% did not answer this question (lack of
knowledge);
• 20% have the intention to implement it (as soon as
possible; after one year; during 2008-2012);
• 53.3% believe that ISO 14064 will be implemented
in Brazilian organisations (comparing to ISO
14001);
Results of the research (8)
• Section 4: the ISO 14064 Standard
– Adoption:
• 60% demonstrated that ISO 14064 will be
implemented in organisations with CDM projects;
• 46.7% implemented it in large organisations;
• 33.3% implemented it in organisations that have
ISO standards implemented;
Results of the research (9)
• Section 4: the ISO 14064 Standard
– Reasons to adopt ISO 14064:2006:
Reason
Respondents
Improved GHG reductions compliance
7
Improve credibility of the CDM project
Increased management commitment
7
7
Facilitate the trade of GHG allowances or credits
7
Manage GHG-related liabilities, assets and risks
6
6
Improve the image of the enterprise
6
Better management of a specific GHG issue
5
5
Improved transparency of the CDM project
Improved relationship with governmental agencies
Improved relationships with community
3
Increase the value of Carbon Credits
2
Meet regulatory need
Improve credibility of CER’s
1
Cost savings
1
Customer requirement
1
No comments due to unfamiliarity
33.3%
4
4
Improved employee commitment
6.7%
3
46.7%
20%
Results of the research (10)
• Section 4: the ISO 14064 Standard
– Reasons not to adopt ISO 14064:2006:
Respondents
Reason
2
Not a requirement for customers
Cost of implementation
1
ISO 14064 is too bureaucratic for the size of
our organisation
1
ISO 14064 did not deliver improvements
1
CDM requirements are sufficient to the
project
1
Necessity to know ISO 14064 first, to answer
13.3%
6.7%
3
66.7% not answered
20%
General Outcomes (1)
• Internal benefits to implement ISO 14064:
Organisational benefits

Better management
of a specific GHG
issue
Financial benefits

Improve credibility of
the CDM project
People benefits

Improve employee
commitment
• External benefits to implement ISO 14064:
Commercial benefits
 Improve transparency
of the CDM project
 Improve the image of
the organisation
Environmental benefits
 Improve GHG
reductions compliance
Communication
benefits
 Improve
relationship(s) with
governmental
authorities/agencies
General Outcomes (2)
• Internal barriers to implement ISO 14064:
Capacity building /
Resources
 Lack of knowledge
 Lack of specialist staff
Understanding and
perception
Organisation attitude
 Perception of high cost
for implementation
 ISO 14064 is too
bureaucratic for the size
of our organisation
 CDM requirements are
sufficient to the project
• External barriers to implement ISO 14064:
Verifier bodies
Economic
Support and Guidance
 Lack of knowledge and
experience
 CERs’ trade only with
ISO 14064 organisations
 Lack of knowledge and
experienced consultants
Conclusions (1)
• Brazilian organisations with CDM projects, at
first, will not adopt ISO 14064 (problems: lack of
knowledge; costs related to validation and
verification processes);
• They support the necessity to standardise
requirements to quantify, monitor and verify GHG
emissions reductions;
• They understand that standardised procedures
can improve credibility and financial aspects of
CDM projects (can attract investors);
Conclusions (2)
• Small organisations are more interested than
large organisations (minimise risks related to the
CDM project);
• Brazilian organisations with CDM projects have
pro-environmental attitude (high number of EM
programs and ISO certificates – good tendency
to adopt ISO 14064);
Conclusions (3)
• Standards are environmental and business tools
to tackling climate change and improving profits
(LR);
• Dissemination is a key to ISO 14064 adoption (it
was achieved in Brazilian organisations with
CDM projects);
• It was recommended an action plan at ISO and
National standards associations to disseminate
ISO 14064 (plan: who, where, when and how).
QUESTIONS ?
MANY THANKS !
Full study: www.abnt.org.br/cb38
Alexandre V. MELLO
[email protected]
+ 55 61 3317.9482