The Mycenaean Greece

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Transcript The Mycenaean Greece

The Middle East (1700 - 1100B.C.E.)
The Agean World
Corten Singer
Kealoha Betanzos
Middle East: Politics
• From 1500-1200B.C.E., Egypt and Mesopotamia succumbed
to outside invaders and large territorial states took over the
Middle East
• It was split into two main territories, Babylonia in the South
and Assyria in the North
• Babylonia had political control under the Hammurabi
dynasty in the 18th and 17th Centuries
• Kassites came into the Middle East frequently and by
1460B.C.E. the Kassite Dynasty took power in Babylonia
o Rarely pushed to conquer outside territories
• The Hittites were the formost power in Anatolia from 17001200B.C.E. with advantage of horse drawn war-chariots
• After 400 years of flourishing, the Middle Egyptian Kingdom
declined to the dismay of the Hyksos in 1640B.C.E.
o Bow made of horn and wood aided the Hyksos to victory
Middle East: Politics (Continued)
• After a century of foreign reign, the New Egyptain Kingdom
came to power from 1532-1070B.C.E.
• The New Egyptian Kingdom spread their territory farther for
more protection over mainland
• After Pharaoh Tuthmosis (II) died, his Queen Hatshepsut
took control from 1473-1458B.C.E. and became one of the only
female rulers of the Middle East
• In 1353-1335, King Akhenaten became the main ruler of
Egypt and created monotheism
• Immediatley afterwards, the Boy-King Tutankhamun ruled
from 1333B.C.E. to 1323B.C.E.
Was the youngest ruler ever
o Was the only royal grave site that was not dug up by
grave robbers
• Then Ramesses (II) or "Ramesses The Great" gained
control from 1290B.C.E. through 1224B.C.E.
Middle East: Economics
• Commercial contacts with neighboring societies made
trade of items and ideas useful and popular
• The city Ashur (Northern Tigris) was a major center of trade
along the Mesopotamian and Anatolian Plains
• Assyrian merchant families dwelled outside important
Anatolian city walls
• Assyrians textiles, tins and bronze (used since 2500B.C.E.)
were traded for silver in Anatolia
• Hittites had large deposits of copper, silver and iron which
were greatly involved in international commerce
• New Egyptian Kingdom gained timber, gold and copper
after conquering Nubian lands
• Mari and Alalakh were major international trade cities
• Coastal cities (mainly Ugarit) served as transhippment
points along the Mediterranean Coast
Middle East: Religion
• Were mainly polytheistic
throughout all of the Middle
• Altogether, worshipped and
extremely wide variety of gods
• Akhenaten (Beneficial To The
Aten) invented monotheism for
o Royal families
• Akhenaten closed religious
temples pertaining to gods
other than Aten
Middle East: Social
• The majority of Middle Eastern
people were peasants
• Throughout this period the
peasants saw an improvement of
standard living
• Social classes focused on rulers
and royal families first,
merchants/traders second,
peasants third and then slaves at
the bottom
• Women had more power than
ever and even had control over
land (Hatshepsut)
o Man-like qualities
Middle East: Intellectual
• Kassites coming into Middle East spoke non-semetic language but
changed to the Babylonian language after conquering them
• Hittites spoke an indo-european language and used cuneiform to
write it
• Akkadian was the language of diplomacy between governments
• In Ugarit, 30 diverse cuneifrom symbols were made for
constanants making story-telling spread
• Domesticated horses were first used in Egypt in 1600B.C.E.
• New Egyptian Kingdom was introduced to exotic fruits and
veggies, musical instruments and technologies like advanced
pottery wheels
• Middle Eastern society had useful advantages like new bows and
horse drawn chariots (Used mainly in war)
• Hittites had new ways to make iron/metal weapons by heating,
shaping and cooling, but it was kept a secret from other societies
Middle East: Art
• Besides Egyptian advances
in architecture, not much
artwork throughout the
Middle East
• Statues of Ramesses (II) at
Abu Simbel
o Placed at bend in Nile to
face Southern Frontier
• Mortuary Temple of Queen
Hatshepsut at Deir el-Bahri,
Egypt (1460B.C.E.)
Middle East: Near?
• Surrounds the eastern side
of the Mediterranean Sea
and lies east of the
Aegean Sea
• It is located below the
Black Sea and is NorthWest of the Russian Gulf
• The land consists mainly
of Mesopotamia, Upper
Egypt, Anotalia, Mitanni
and the Hittite Empire
The Minoan Civilization
• 2000 B.C.E. Island of Crete
housed first Europoean Civilization
with complex political and social
• Civilaztion has been named after
the Greek Legend King Minos.
• Ethnicity of Minoans is uncertain,
and writing has not been
• Land is mostly rocky and arid, with
small plains lying between ranges
of hills.
• Limited arable land suitable for
grains, grapevines, and olive trees.
• Coastline, natural harbors, sea
fastest mode of travel, and trade.
The Minoan Civilization
• Egyptian, Syrian, and
Mesopotamian influences can be
seen in the design of Minoan
• Palaces, Cretan pottery and other
artifacts show widespread trade
• Palace complexes at Cnossus,
Minoan Palace
Phaistos, and Mallia.
• Had a Centralized Government,
and a system of writing.
• Absence of identifiable Cretan
rulers, contrasts sharply with
depictions of kings in middle east.
• Due to no "All powerful figure"
suggests different conception of
Cnossus city ruins. Cretan painting on pottery
The Minoan Civilization
• Statuettes of women with
elaborate head dresses and
serpents coiling around may have
represented fertility godess.
• Paintings in Cretan palaces show
women in frilly, layered skirts in
conversations, or watching forms
of entertainment.
• Pictures of servants at work,
fishermen throwing nets and hooks
from boats.
• Pictures showed a joyful attitude
toward work, but some say it
showed a taste of the elite, away
from daily life.
• Depictions of animals and plants
in Minoan culture showed a beauty
in natural world.
• All palaces deliberatley destroyed
around 1450 B.C.E
• Only lasting palace is Cnossus.
• Most people think it was the
Mycenaean Greeks.
The Mycenaean Greece
• In the Greek Peninsula around
2000 B.C.E.
• Civilization named Mycenaean
because it was the first place
• Started with speakers of IndoEuropean, then intermarriage with
people, melding of languages and
• For centuries remained simple
farmers, and sherperds.
• Around the time of 1600 B.C.E life
changed relativley suddenly.
• Many say they gained power and
wealth to evolve into a greater
civilization from piracy and trade.
The Mycenaean Greece
• Much of the Mycenaean culture
and technology was taken from
the Minoan, yet control of the
Minoan in the Mycenaean land
was not seen.
• At the time they adpoted Minoan
style and techniques of architect,
pottery making, and fresco and
vase paintings.
• Borrowed the Minoan idea of the
palace, Centralized economy, and
administrative bureaucracy, as well
as Minoan writing system.
Lion Gate, Entrance
The Mycenaean Greece
• In Citadels, built at a commanding
location on a hilltop.
• Surrounded by high, thick
fortification walls made of large
• Stones so large later to be said to
be placed there by the giant one
eyed cyclopes.
• In the walls was a place of
protection in a time of danger.
• Inside walls were the palace and
administrative complex.
• In the walls were the royal living
chambers, courtyards, palace
walls were brightly colored
depicting art of war and hunting.
• Near the palace were the graves
of past rulers, outside of the wall
were the large houses.
• Large houses belonged to the
aristocracy, peasants lived on
lower slopes in plains below near
the land they worked on.
The Mycenaean Greece
• Writing style now called Linear B.
• 4,000 clay tablets explain life of
the Mycenaean Greece.
• Kept track of people, animals, and
objects in exhaustive detail.
• Kept track of boats in docks, gods,
and much more.
• Although keeping track of many
items, they do not mention a single
name of a Mycenaean king, and
very little about political and legal
systems, social structures, gender
relations, and religious beliefs.
• Political unity said to have
happened due to similarity in
production techniques, tools, and
clothing in all cities.
The Mycenaean Greece
• Long distance trade made possible
by boating.
• Much pottery from the Mycenaean
has been found in other
civilizations that show trade routes
were made through the
Mycenaean people.
• Possible exports were wine, olive
oils, weapons, and crafted goods.
• Also transported other goods of
people for minimum profit.
• Imports were amber, metals,
copper, gold, and tin.
• Metal goods were wanted some
say for the elite of society at time.
The Mycenaean Greece
• During time trade and piracy were
closley linked.
• Mycenaean's were tough, warlike
and acquisitive.
• Traded with those as strong as
them, and took from those who
were weak.
• Led to conflict with the Hittite kings
of Anatolia.
• Documents found that showed
sometimes peace between both
people, but other times problems
are battles.
The Mycenaean Greece
• The end of the Mycenaean
civilization illistrates the
consequences of political and
economical collapse.
• After palaces started
deconstruction the ruling class
lost its power.
• The linear B tablets disappeared,
depopulation showed people
leaving to better areas.
• Gods for years to come were still
worshiped, people still kept there
knowledge and technology.
• In the end societies that prospered
slowly collapsed in face of violence
and internal weakness and gave
way to what the region called "The
Dark Age" which lasted centuries
filled with poverty, isolation, and
loss of knowledge.