Planetary Science - Columbia Falls Junior High

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Transcript Planetary Science - Columbia Falls Junior High

Planetary Science
Knowledge Check
1. What causes day and night?
(Please include a picture with
your explanation.)
2. How long is a day and how long
is a night on Earth?
3. Why does the Sun rise in the east
on Earth but in the west on
Venus?
4. How long is a year on Earth?
Why is it that long?
5. What causes the seasons?
6. Why is it a different time in
New York than in Columbia
Falls?
7. Where does the new day start
on Earth?
8. At what time is the sun at its
highest point in the sky?
9. How long is a day and how long
is a night on the Moon?
Day & Night
Why does the length of
day (photoperiod) and night
change?
luminous gives off light (not reflected light)
examples:
luminous -> Sun & other
stars, light bulb
not luminous -> Moon,
comet, asteroid, meteor
rotate
spin around an axis
rotate
spin around an axis
Earth’s
rotation
1. direction is counter
clockwise (to the east)
–
evidence for direction:
Sun rises in the east
2. time for one rotation is
24 hours
Moon’s
rotation
1. direction is counter
clockwise
2. time for one rotation is
28 days
revolve
to orbit around another
object
revolve
to orbit around another
body
It takes the Earth 365 and
Earth’s
revolution ¼ days to revolve around
(counterclockwise) the Sun once (counter clockwise)
revolve
to orbit around another
body
It takes the Earth 365 and
Earth’s
revolution ¼ days to revolve around
(counterclockwise) the Sun once
Moon’s
It takes the Moon 28 days
revolution to revolve once around
(counterclockwise)
Earth (counter clockwise)
latitude
east-west circles parallel
to equator which range
from 0o at equator to 90o
(north or south) at poles
latitude
Seasons
animations
SEASON SIMULATOR
Go to:
http://astro.unl.edu/classaction/animations/coord
smotion/eclipticsimulator.html
Drag the stick figure up until the observer’s
latitude is about 48.2o.
Click the checkbox to show labels in the upper
right screen.
Sun’s angle beam spread picture of Earth/Sun
summer
solstice
(~June 21)
fall
equinox
(~Sept. 21)
winter
solstice
(~Dec. 21)
spring
equinox
(~March 21)
Sun’s angle beam spread picture of Earth/Sun
summer
solstice
(~June 21)
fall
equinox
(~Sept. 21)
winter
solstice
(~Dec. 21)
spring
equinox
(~March 21)
65.1
B
A
DAY LENGTH SIMULATOR
Go to:
http://www.cs.sbcc.net/~physics/flash/LengthofDay.swf
Find the longitude line nearest to Anchorage.
Locate the arctic circle.
Observe the longitude line at each equinox and the
solstices as the Earth rotates .
Which part of the longitude line goes into shadow first?
north first south first all the same daylight to night
summer
solstice
(~June 21)
fall
equinox
(~Sept. 21)
winter
solstice
(~Dec. 21)
spring
equinox
(~March 21)
north first south first all the same daylight to night
summer
solstice
(~June 21)
fall
equinox
(~Sept. 21)
winter
solstice
(~Dec. 21)
spring
equinox
(~March 21)
long
equal
short
equal
What Causes Tilt of the Earth on
The Seasons? its axis causes:
1) hours of daylight to change
during the year which results
in a different number of
hours for heating;
2) changes in the angle at
which the light strikes the
Earth (
more heating,
less heating)
Summer in N. Hemisphere
axis is tilted toward the Sun –
1) more daylight hours means
more time for heating;
2) higher angle of light
means more heating
Winter in N. Hemisphere
axis is tilted away from Sun –
1) fewer daylight hours means
less time for heating;
2) lower angle of light
means less heating
Why do we 1. The northern
have
hemisphere is tilted
summer?
toward the Sun in
(1-3)
summer. This causes
more hours of daylight.
2. The tilt also results in
more direct sunlight
striking the northern
hemisphere.
3. More direct sunlight
for more hours
causes more heating.
Why do we 1. The northern
have
hemisphere is tilted
winter?
away from the Sun in
(1-3)
winter. This causes
fewer hours of daylight.
2. The tilt also results in
less direct sunlight
striking the northern
hemisphere.
3. Less direct sunlight
for fewer hours
causes less heating.
result: warmer
temperatures
N. longitude comes out of
shadow (sunrise) earlier and
goes into shadow (sunset)
later than south longitude;
more time to heat
more direct energy
from sun; more
heating
summer
fall
SEASONS
spring
winter
N. longitude comes out of
shadow (sunrise) later and
goes into shadow (sunset)
earlier than south longitude;
less time to heat
less direct energy
from sun; less
heating
result: cooler
temperatures
Key Points So Far
1. When light strikes a spherical
object, exactly 50% is in light and
50% in darkness.
2. The Earth rotates on its axis once
every 24 hours. The rotation
gives the illusion that the Sun
rises and sets.
3. The hours of daylight on Earth vary
from 0 to 24 hours per day
depending on the latitude, and
season. This is because of the
Earth’s tilt.
4. The Earth revolves around the Sun
once every 365 ¼ days.
5. The Earth’s seasons are a result of
the Earth’s tilt. The tilt results in
two things.
 changes in hours of daylight;
 changes the angle at which the Sun
light strikes the Earth
6. When the northern hemisphere is
tilted toward the Sun, it is summer
because
 There are more hours of daylight–
more time to heat the surface;
 the angle of sunlight striking the
surface is more direct – more heating
spinning
about an
axis
1 day
or 24
hrs
Sir Sanford
Flemming
1884
Day & Night
is about
were invented by
is
for Earth is
the motion of the
Earth relative to the
Sun & how we keep
time
rotation
one motion is
in the
results in a unique
counterclockwise
or east direction
local
noon
another motion is
is
revolution
planet
tilt
causes
different
Sun
angles
for Earth is
causes
varying
lengths
of
daylight
resulting in
resulting in
seasons
which together with
1 year
or 365
days
of the Earth &
planets around the
Sun was proposed
by
Nicolaus
Copernicus
1543
one
object
orbiting
around
another
object
Time keeping
around the planet
was made easier
with the invention
of
time
zones
and the
International
Date Line
Practice Quiz
Day & Night Day
1.What is the difference between
rotate and revolve?
2.What is the Earth’s period of
rotation? Revolution?
3.What is the Moon’s period of
rotation? Revolution?
4.How much of Mars is in day at
any given time?
5.Which way does the Earth
rotate? Revolve?
6.Which way does the Moon
rotate? Revolve?
7. How long is day and how long is
night on Earth? Moon?
8. What causes the seasons?
9. Which of the following are
luminous?
a) light bulb b) Moon c) Sun
d) asteroid e) comet
Local Noon
local noon the moment when the Sun is at
its highest point in the sky
How do
you
calculate
local
noon?
There are 3 steps.
How do
you
calculate
local
noon?
There are 3 steps.
1) Find the time between
sunrise and sunset.
How do
you
calculate
local
noon?
There are 3 steps.
1) Find the time between
sunrise and sunset.
2) Divide that time in half.
How do
you
calculate
local
noon?
There are 3 steps.
1) Find the time between
sunrise and sunset.
2) Divide that time in half.
3) Add that time to the
sunrise time.
How do
you
calculate
local
noon?
examples
There are 3 steps.
1) Find the time between
sunrise and sunset.
2) Divide that time in half.
3) Add that time to the
sunrise time.
Time Zones
time zone
one of 24 sectors on the
Earth which are 15o or 1
hour wide
time zone
one of 24 sectors on the
Earth which are 15o or 1
hour wide
Why do we Towns set local time
have time according to local noon.
zones?
This caused a problem for
railroad scheduling.
Who
started
time
zones?
Sir Sanford Flemming
(1827-1915) proposed the
idea of time zones. The
world adopted the idea in
1884.
U.S. Time Zones
World Time Zones
Rotate
Spin
around an
axis.
Compare to revolve
Revolve
Move in
orbit about
a center.
Unit 2: The Moon
1. Race to Space
2. Moon Origin Theories
3. Moon Size & Distance
4. Moon Surface Features
Introduction to the
Moon
rays
is about
The Race
to Space
crater
characteristics
scale of
size
what mankinds explorations &
research have revealed about the
effects of moving objects on the
Moon (and the Earth)
starts with
include
include
Moon Surface
Features
includes names of
Theories of
Moon Origin
Sisters
Theory
Capture
Theory
Distance & Size
Relationships of
Earth & Moon
Daughter
Theory
Big
Impact
Theory
diameter
& depth
for example
for example
Moon is
about 30
Earth
diameters
away
Moon is
about 1/4
of the
Earths
diameter
craters
includes names of
maria
JFK “We
Choose. . “
Sputnik 1
Luna 1
Luna 2
1st US space walk
Ed White
’56 ’57 ’58 ’59 ’60 ’61 ’62 ’63 ’64 ’65 ’66 ’67 ’68 ’69 ‘70
1st step
Neil Armstrong
Luna 3
Sputnik2
John Glenn F7
1st US orbit
Moon Origin Theories
• Sisters Theory
• Capture Theory
• Daughter Theory
• Big Impact Theory
Sisters Theory
Capture Theory
Daughter Theory
Big Impact Theory
Crater:
a bowl shaped hole
caused by an impact
impact simulator
Meteor Crater Arizona
diameter = .74 miles
Ray:
white lines of material
ejected from a crater and
extending in all directions
Copernicus
rays
Tycho
Mare:
mare (MAH-ray) singular
maria (MAH-ree-ah) plural
Mare:
large relatively flat &
dark area of hardened
lava
maria
Plato
Sea of Rains
63 mi
746 mi
Copernicus
Sea of
Serenity
373 mi
58 mi
Sea of
Crises
354 mi
Ptolemaeus
Sea of
Tranquility
94 mi
Tycho
37 mi
Copernicus
5
6
7
4
8
3
2
1
a
b
c
d
Moon Phases
Earth & Moon
Comparison
Earth dia. ~ 12,750 km
Moon dia. ~ 3,500 km
Distance. ~ 384,000 km
Moon is about ¼ of
Earths diameter
Earth & Moon are about
30 Earth Diameters apart
30 Earth diameters
The Moon’s Orbit is
o
Tilted at 5
(image)
Moon Phases
More Moon Phase Animations
• http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animation
s/content/moonphase.html (animated worksheet)
•
• http://astro.unl.edu/naap/lps/animations/lps.swf
(with angle and time)
• http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/moon_phas
es/ (beginners )
• http://sunshine.chpc.utah.edu/labs/moon/lunar_pha
ses_main.html (lunar phase activities)
Eclipses
Tilt of Moon’s Orbit
animation
relative to the ecliptic
solar & lunar eclipse
Solar Eclipse
A solar eclipse
happens when the
Moon passes
between the Sun and
the Earth. A solar
eclipse may be
partial or total (which
is more rare).
Solar Eclipse
• NASA Solar Eclipse Tables
• Solar Eclipse for Beginners
Lunar Eclipse
A lunar eclipse
happens when the
Earth passes
between the Sun and
the Moon. A lunar
eclipse may be either
partial or total.
Lunar Eclipse
NASA Lunar Eclipse Tables
Lunar Eclipse for Beginners
The Solar System:
How did it form?
Our Home in the
Universe:
A look at size and scale.
Introduction to
Our Solar
System
Aristarchus of Samos
310BC – 230BC
First proposed that the
planets revolved around
the Sun.
Nicolaus Copernicus
1473 – 1543
Model of solar
system with planets
revolving around the
Sun.
Copernicus
Model
Sun
• not a planet, but a star
• contains 99.86% of matter
in entire solar system
• energy released like 100
billion tons of TNT
exploding each second
flare
The Death of Our Star
What is a 1. orbits Sun
planet? 2. its gravity pulled it into
a spherical shape
3. cleared the region of
its orbit
4. is not a moon
What is a 1. orbits Sun
dwarf 2. Its gravity pulled it into
planet?
a spherical shape
3. has not cleared the
region of its orbit
4. is not a moon
What is 1. orbits Sun inside orbit
an
of Jupiter
asteroid? 2. not enough mass for
gravity to pull it into a
spherical shape
3. has not cleared the
region of its orbit
4. is not a moon
dwarf planet
asteroid belt
asteroid
asteroid
its gravity did not
pull it into a sphere
did not clear
its orbit
-orbits Sun
-not a moon
cleared its orbit
dwarf planet
its gravity
pulled it into
a sphere
planet
Analogy:
dwarf planet is to planet
as
car in traffic is to _____?
Einstein and Gravity
Law of
Gravity
1. The force of gravity
increases as the
mass of the object
(developed by
increases.
Issac Newton &
2. The force of gravity
describes
strength of
decreases as the
gravity)
distance between the
objects increase.
The Solar System
The Planets
The Inner
Solid Planets
Mercury
(Roman messenger god)
Mercury
Mercury
• greatest temperature
o
o
range (870 F to –300 F)
• smallest planet – only
slightly larger than our
moon
• very little atmosphere
• covered with craters
Venus
(Roman goddess of love)
Venus Maat Mons
Venus
o
900 F
•
on surface
• clouds of sulfuric acid,
hurricane force winds,
lightning
• crushing atmosphere (like
being 3,000 ft deep in ocean)
• rotates in direction opposite
of the Earth’s rotation
• 1 rotation takes 243 Earth
days, while 1 revolution
around the Sun only takes 225
days (day is longer than year)
Earth
Mars
(Roman god of war)
Mars (Hubble)
View of Earth from Mars
Mars Surface
panoramas
Mars
o
23 F
• temperature range
to
o
–125 F
• largest volcano in solar
system (16 miles high, 360
miles wide)
• has a canyon that would
stretch from New York to Los
Angeles (the Grand Canyon
could easily fit into one of the
side canyons)
• has 2 moons: Phobos (fear) &
Deimos (panic)
Asteroid Belt
• region between Mars and
Jupiter where thousands of
asteroids are found
• dwarf planet Ceres is found in
asteroid belt
The Outer
Gas Planets
Jupiter
(king of Roman gods)
Jupiter Rings
Jupiter
• gas planet made mostly of
hydrogen & helium
• 1,300 Earths could fit inside
• has 2/3 of the matter
contained in all the planets
• 67 moons (as of March 2013)
• Great Red Spot is a giant
storm - 3 Earths could fit side
by side within this storm
• has 1 faint ring surrounding it
Saturn
(Roman god of agriculture)
Saturn
Taken by satellite Cassini Oct 04
Saturn & Titan (Cassini Mar 05)
Titan
Titan (Cassini 2/15/05)
T
i
t
a
n
l
a
n
d
i
n
artist conception
of Titan’s surface
with Huygens
floating under
parachute
actual picture of Titan’s surface taken from Huygens as it floated
down; river channels caused by flowing liquid methane
a
c
e
f
r
o
m
H
u
y
g
actual surface
of Titan
Saturn
• gas planet made mostly of
hydrogen and helium
• 62 moons
• winds of 1,000 miles per hour
• radiates more energy than
o
receives from Sun (21,000 F
core)
Uranus
(Roman god of the sky)
moon Ariel
Uranus
• blue, gas planet made mostly
of hydrogen & helium but with
more methane than Jupiter &
Saturn;
• lays on its side and rotates
Uranus
• at least 11 thin rings
• 27 moons
• temperature (–365oF)
Neptune
(Roman god of the sea)
storm called
“Great Dark Spot”
Scooter
storm called
“Dark Spot 2”
Neptune rings
Neptune
• bluish gas planet with striped
pattern; made mostly of
hydrogen & helium but with
more methane gas than
Jupiter or Saturn
• at least 4 rings
• 13 moons
Outer Planets
1. Which of the outer planets has
the longest year? Why?
2. Which of the outer planets has
the shortest day? Why?
3. Put outer planets in order by:
diameter
•
gravity
least
greatest
»
least
greatest
Can you always predict gravity based
on diameter alone? Why?
The Dwarf
Planets
and beyond
Kuiper Belt
Kuiper Belt
• region starts beyond Neptune
• made up of millions of icy and
rocky objects
• astronomers think short
period comets (<200 yrs) may
come from Kuiper Belt
Ceres
(Roman goddess of the
harvest, & motherly love)
Ceres
• largest object
in the asteroid
belt (not
Kuiper Belt)
Pluto
(Roman god of underworld)
Pluto
• found in the Kuiper Belt
• solid planet – frozen methane,
nitrogen & carbon dioxide
• 5 moons
Eris
(Roman goddess of strife & discord)
Eris
•
•
•
•
found in the Kuiper Belt
largest of the dwarf planets
one moon – Dysnomia
3 times farther from the Sun than
Pluto
Makemake
creator god of Rapa Nui
(Easter Island)
Makemake
• found in the Kuiper Belt
• 3rd largest of the dwarf planets
Haumea
Hawaiian goddess of childbirth
Haumea
• found in the Kuiper Belt
• two moons – Hiiaka, Nmaka
(daughters of Haumea)
• fastest spinning object in Solar
System
Oort Cloud
• immense spherical
cloud surrounding
solar system; about
1 light year from the Sun
Interstellar medium
slows as it collides
with heliosphere
(solar wind slows)
“bubble” in space “blown”
by solar wind
Solar System Formation
Planets
11
12
13
14
15
Review