Herbs, Spices, Minerals, and Flavoring Agents

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Transcript Herbs, Spices, Minerals, and Flavoring Agents

Herbs, Spices, Minerals,
and Flavoring Agents
Chapter 11
• Explain the differences between herbs,
spices, and minerals
• List commonly used herbs, spices, and
salts and identify their global sources
• Describe common herb and spice
Objectives (cont’d.)
• List commonly used oils and their
• Describe the process for making infused
and flavored oils
• Explain the smoke point of oils
Objectives (cont’d.)
• List commonly used vinegars and their
• Summarize the process for making
infused and flavored vinegars
• Define condiments as flavoring agents
and give examples
Product Identification
• Herbs
– Leaves of shrubs and herbaceous plants
• Spices
– Come from roots, barks, buds, seeds,
berries or fruit of tropical trees, plants, and
Product Identification (cont’d.)
• Minerals
– Crystals formed by different geological
– Mined from the earth or produced by
evaporating water
• Flavoring agents
– Artificial or natural substances added to
foods to enhance flavor
• Herbs have medicinal properties
– Natural antioxidants and vitamins
• When choosing herbs, look for brightly
colored stems
• Use immediately after purchasing
– Or wrap in damp towel and place in sealed
container for up to five days
11.1 Basil
11.4 Cilantro
11.2 Bay Leaf
11.5 Dill
11.3 Chives
11.6 Marjoram
© Randy Van Dam 2008
11.7 Mint
11.9b Flat Leaf Parsley
11.8 Oregano
11.10 Rosemary
11.9a Curly Parsley
11.11 Sage
© Randy Van Dam 2008
11.12 Tarragon
11.13 Thyme
© Randy Van Dam 2008
• Spices have a more intense flavor than
• Most peppercorns are grown in India,
Indonesia, Brazil, and Malaysia
• Saffron is a rare and expensive spice
– Flowers are picked by hand and sold by
the stamen or thread, or in ground form
11.14 Cinnamon bark,
sticks and ground
11.17 Horseradish
11.15 Galangal
11.18 Lemongrass
11.16 Ginger root
11.19 Nutmeg and Mace
© Randy Van Dam 2008
11.20 Brown and
white mustard
seeds with ground
mustard powder
11.22b Assorted peppercorns
11.21 Parsley root
11.22c Whole, crushed
and ground
11.22a Peppercorn bush
11.23 Assorted colored
sesame seeds
© Randy Van Dam 2008
11.24 Saffron Threads
11.27 Vanilla bean
11.25 Star Anise
11.26 Tamarind Pods
and Seeds
11.28 Wasabi powder
© Randy Van Dam 2008
Storage and Handling
• Fresh herbs/spices only last a few days
• Dried forms can be successfully stored
– Crushed and ground forms do not last as
long as whole forms
• Can buy whole and crush or grind as needed
• Factors that affect spice quality
– Light, humidity, oxygen, and heat
Market Forms
• Various processed forms are available
– Whole
– Ground
– Granulated
– Extractives
– Herb and spice blends
• Salt is the mineral most used in cooking
– Reasons for using salt
• Preventing mold and bacteria growth
• Acting as a brake for chemical reactions
produced by yeast in baked goods
• Brightening food flavors
• Decreasing sourness of acids and increasing
sweetness of sugar in dishes
Types of Salt
Canning or pickling salt
Coarse salt
Flake salt
Grinder salt
11.30 Canning or pickling salt
11.31 Coarse salt
© Randy Van Dam 2008
Types of Salt (cont’d.)
Kosher salt
Popcorn salt
Rock salt
Sea salt
Table salt
11.34 Kosher salt
11.36 Rock salt
© Randy Van Dam 2008
Types of Salt (cont’d.)
• Black salt
• Brazilian sea
• Grey salt
• Celtic salt
• Hawaiian sea
11.40 Brazilian sea salt
11.41 Celtic salt
© Randy Van Dam 2008
Types of Salt (cont’d.)
• Himalayan pink
• Italian sea salt
• New Zealand sea
• Organic salt
• Smoked sea salt
11.47c Black smoked sea salt
© Randy Van Dam 2008
Flavoring Agents
• Dehydrated vegetables can be used as
– Onions, garlic, sweet red pepper, and mint
– Freeze-dried chives and shallots
• Condiments
– Combinations of herbs and spices with a
liquid base (examples: mustard, relish)
• Oils are liquid fats from plants or
• Cold-pressed oils are made by pressing
vegetables on an expeller press
– Friction of pressing heats the oil
• Some oils with delicate tastes must be pressed
in a temperature-controlled environment to
reduce heating
Oils (cont’d.)
• All oils are sensitive to damage from
heat, light and oxygen exposure
• Smoke point is the temperature at which
the oil will start to smoke
– Vegetable oils can handle higher
temperatures than animal oils
– Oil begins to break down at the smoke
point and must be discarded
Oils (cont’d.)
• Different types of oils
– Avocado, coconut, corn, cottonseed,
grapeseed, hazelnut, olive, palm, peanut,
pine seed, pumpkin seed, rapeseed
(canola), safflower, sesame, soy,
sunflower, vegetable (blend), and walnut
• Vinegar means “sour wine”
– Made by exposing wine with less than 18
percent alcohol to air
– Bacteria in air reacts with residual yeast to
create mother (layer of mold)
• Reacts with alcohol to change into acetic acid
Vinegars (cont’d.)
• Vinegar types
– Wine, balsamic, cider, malt, spirit, rice and
flavored vinegars
• Herbs and spices are used to add flavor
to foods
– Fresh herbs are very perishable
– Dried herbs last longer
– Spices are freshest when purchased whole
and crushed or ground as needed
• There are many different types of salt
Summary (cont’d.)
• Dehydrated vegetables can be used as
flavoring agents
• Condiments are flavorings with a liquid
• There are many types of oils
• Vinegar is made from wine, beer or