Chapter 8: The Internet and The World Wide Web

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Transcript Chapter 8: The Internet and The World Wide Web

The Internet & the WWW
Chapter 8
Working Online
© The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2000
Overview
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The Internet
The World Wide Web
Online services
New Internet
technologies
• Net downside issues
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The Internet: Connections,
Features, and Addresses
• Internet is an international network
connection of over 400,000 networks in
more than 200 countries
• While English dominates current sites,
Chinese is predicted to overtake English in
sites by 2005
• Many sites have translated attached sites or
provide simultaneous translation
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Internet Origins
• ARPAnet was formed by the US government to
aid in communicating research
• Secondarily, it was designed to maintain network
communications among military units in the
event of a nuclear attack
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TCP/IP
• Transmission Control Protocol/Internet
Protocol
• Sends packets of information over fastest
routes, then reassembled at destination in
original order
• Allows communication among different
operating systems
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Internet Connection
• Direct connection
through business or
educational institution
• Your own system
– communications line
– update and configure
modem
– select access provider
(ISP) or online service
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Setup
• May setup through Wizards
• May setup through entering dialup numbers,
POP, and SMTP servers
• Considerations
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survey others on a proposed service
verify responsiveness through ratings
cost options
access to e-mail through another ISP
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Internet Tools
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World Wide Web
E-mail
Usenet newsgroups
Mailing lists, listservs
FTP, file transfer protocol
Telnet, allow logon as a client computer
Gopher
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FAQs
• Frequently Asked Questions
• Netiquette
– CAP LOCKS are the equivalent of yelling
• Emoticons
• Spam, spamming
– software is available to help control unwanted
e-mail in an inbox
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Emoticons
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:-) happy face
:-( sorrow
:-() shock
:-/ sarcasm
;-) wink
:-| anger
:/ hmmm
:-D laugh
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:[email protected] scream
<g> grin
<BTW> by the way
<IMHO> in my
humble opinion
• <FYI> for your
information
• <nc> no comment
• <jk> just kidding
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Internet Addresses
• Domain Name System
• Domain
– user ID, subdomain, domain
(location), root domain (domain
type), and country
• com, edu, gov, mil, net, org
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Web Addresses
• URL
– Uniform Resource Locator
• http://
– hypertext transfer protocol
• ftp://
– file transfer protocol
• gopher://
– gopher protocol
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Formats
• HTML
– hypertext markup language
• html
– Microsoft variants
• htm
• asp
– active server pages
• XML
– extensible markup language
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Format Help
• HTML
– tutorials
• http://www.webmonkey.com
• http://www.cnet.com
• XML
– tutorial
• http://www.ibm.com
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Domain Name System
• DNS
• Visit the Internet Assigned Numbers
Authority
– http://www.iana.com
– $75 for a limited time
• Other services will assign DNSs for an
additional fee
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Uses of the Web
• Performing research
– Encyclopedia
• http://www.encarta.com
– Internet Public Library
• http://www.ipl.com
– Library of Congress
• http://www.loc.gov
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More Uses
• Chatting
– communicate with a group
– use proper etiquette
– some monitored, some not
• News
– MSNBC
• http://www.msnbc.com
– ESPN
• http://www.espn.com
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Uses…
• Software: freeware and shareware
– http://www.shareware.com
– http://www.download.com
• Classes and tutorials
– degrees, diplomas, certifications
• Travel plans
– http://www.expedia.com
– http://www.travelocity.com
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Uses...
• Weather
– http://weather.com
– http://www.hawaiiweathertoday.com/mwt/
• Shopping
– http://www.amazon.com
– http://www.cdnow.com
• Investments
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Web Importance - Retail
• Business to Customers
– B-to-C
– up to $20 billion in 2002
– will change but not eliminate
retail
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Web Importance - Business
• Business to Business
– B-to-B
– up to $3 trillion in 2002
– costs savings can be ten to one Web-based
versus traditional business-to-business model
– major transformation of most businesses
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Browser Tools
• Hyperlink always easy navigation on the
Web and within information bases
• History
– allows returning to previously visited sites
• Bookmarks or Favorites
– titles and URLs of Web pages
– Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator install
with a preset list
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Cookies
• Cookies are text files sent
– by Web servers
• Record visited sites, pages, passwords, and
other information
• Can purchase software that controls cookies
or surf from an anonymous site
– however, some sites do not allow access
without cookie acceptance
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Searching the Web
• Search Engines
– Yahoo! - most-used general purpose search site
• http://www.yahoo.com
– Excite - broad topics
• http://www.excite.com
– Ask Jeeves - basic questions
• http://www.askjeeves.com
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More Searching
• HotBot - specific detailed information
– http:/www.hotbot.com
• Lycos - advanced search, educational
– http://www.lycos.com
• Alta Vista - exhaustive and precise searches
– http://www.altavista.com
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Search Helpful Hints
• Pick search site according to information
needs
• Use words and phrases that are common
• Use logical operators : AND, OR, NOT
• Use “open new window” to retain original
site page
• Use the site’s help section
• Limit your time
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Multimedia on the Web
• Use of plug-ins
– Real Player - video and audio
• http://www.realaudio.com
– Live 3D- virtual reality
• http://www.netscape.com
– Shockwave
• http://www.macromedia.com
• Each maker of a plug-in offers additional
software for Web development
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Designing Pages
• HTML
– can use a simple text processor such as Notepad
• Design of large sites
– Microsoft Front Page
• has some additional functionality that may require
Front Page extensions on the Web server
– Adobe PageMill
– Soft Quad XMetal and HotMetal
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Site Setup for Business
• For business
– must include validation, security, firewalls, and
monetary transaction capabilities
• Business mistakes
– not culturally aware
– not build for scalability and future increase in
traffic
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Push Technology
• 1998 push was widely discredited and automatic
installation from Windows 98 SE was stopped
• The idea that information should be pushed to the user
ignored the bandwidth of customers and other limited
bandwidth by corporate users
• Push-media still available from PointCast, Ifusion, and
others
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Online Services
• Online services mostly built on the concept
of community-building
– AOL, CompuServe, MSN, Prodigy
– ease of finding information
– tailored to interests
• Portals
– gateways expanding the functions of much
offered by online services
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Portals and ISPs
• Niche portals
– for certain interests
• ISPs
– Internet Service Providers
– add more and more content including features
traditionally the domain of online services and
portals
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Telephone, Radio, Television,
and 3d Technologies
• Telephones on the Net
– quality is improving
• Radio
– as bandwidth improves, more like real radio
– http://www.real.com
• Television
– RealPlayer
– WebTV
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Advances
• 3D on the Net
– bandwidth challenge
– Virtual Reality Modeling Language, VRML as
a standard
– Silicon Graphics offers browser plug-in
• http://www.sri.com
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Net Loss?
• Not a library, mostly is
television
• Not about information, mostly
marketing
• Use for entertainment
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