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Chapter 3
Demand
and Supply
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.
Introduction
When consumers’ incomes fall, they typically reduce
their consumption of the majority of goods and
services.
But during the Great Recession of the late 2000s,
consumers responded to falling incomes by buying
more shoe repair services, electric hair clippers, and
dial-up Internet access services.
This chapter helps you understand why an income
decline causes consumers to buy more of these goods
and services.
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3-2
Learning Objectives
• Explain the law of demand
• Discuss the difference between money
prices and relative prices
• Distinguish between changes in demand
and changes in quantity demanded
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3-3
Learning Objectives (cont'd)
• Explain the law of supply
• Distinguish between changes in supply and
changes in quantity supplied
• Understand how supply and demand
interact to determine equilibrium price and
quantity
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Chapter Outline
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Demand
The Demand Schedule
Shifts in Demand
The Law of Supply
The Supply Schedule
Shifts in Supply
Putting Demand and Supply Together
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3-5
Did You Know That ...
• After world gasoline prices jumped in the late
2000s, global bicycle sales rose to more than 1
million per month?
• Higher fuel prices induced many individuals to
substitute away from gasoline powered vehicles in
favor of bikes.
• By using demand and supply, you can develop a
better understanding of why sometimes we
observe large increases in the purchase of items
such as bicycles.
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3-6
Did You Know That … (cont’d)
• Markets
– Arrangements that individuals have for
exchanging with one another
– Represent the interaction of buyers and sellers
for goods and services
– Markets set the prices we pay and receive.
•
•
•
•
Automobile market
Health care market
Labor market
Stock market
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Demand
• A schedule showing how much of a good
or service people will purchase at any price
during a specified time period, other things
being constant
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Demand (cont’d)
• Law of Demand
– A negative, or inverse, relationship between
the price of any good or service and the
quantity demanded, holding other factors
constant (ceteris paribus)
• When the price of a good goes up, people buy less of
it, other things being equal.
• When the price of a good goes down, people buy
more of it, other things being equal.
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3-9
Demand (cont’d)
• What are we holding constant?
– Income
– Tastes and preferences
– Price of other goods
– Many other factors
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Example: A Mistaken Price Change Confirms the
Law of Demand
• In Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin, employees at a
Citgo station intending to change the posted price
of gasoline to $3.49 per gallon accidentally
changed the price to $0.349 per gallon.
• During the few minutes between the error and
correction of the mistake, customers used selfserve pumps to filling up their vehicles and any
cans they had readily available.
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Demand (cont’d)
• Relative prices and money prices
– Relative Price
• The price of a commodity in terms of
another commodity
– Money Price
• Price we observe today in today’s dollars (absolute, or
nominal price)
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3-12
Table 3-1 Money Price versus Relative
Price
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3-13
Example: Why Even Low-Income Households Are
Rushing to Buy iPhones
• “Smart” cellphones, such as Apple’s iPhone,
provide broadband Internet connectivity.
• Surveys show that for some low-income
consumers, an Internet-ready cellphone provides
both phone and Internet services at a relatively
low price.
• So, the arrival of smart cellphones has caused the
quality-adjusted cellphone price to drop
sufficiently to justify purchasing the device.
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The Demand Schedule
• Demand schedule
– Table relating prices to quantities demanded
– We must also consider:
• Time dimension (e.g., per year)
• Constant-quality units
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3-15
The Demand Schedule (cont’d)
• Demand Curve
– A graphical representation of the demand
schedule
– Negatively sloped line showing the inverse
relationship between the price and the
quantity
demanded (other things being equal)
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Figure 3-1 The Individual Demand Schedule and the
Individual Demand Curve, Panel (a)
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Figure 3-1 The Individual Demand Schedule and the
Individual Demand Curve, Panel (b)
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The Demand Schedule (cont’d)
• Individual versus market demand curves
• Market Demand
– The demand of all consumers in the
marketplace for a particular good or service
– Summation at each price of the quantity
demanded by each individual
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Figure 3-2 The Horizontal Summation of Two
Demand Curves, Panel (a)
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Figure 3-2 The Horizontal Summation of Two
Demand Curves, Panels (b), (c), (d)
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Figure 3-3 The Market Demand Schedule for
Titanium Batteries, Panel (a)
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Figure 3-3 The Market Demand Schedule for
Titanium Batteries, Panel (b)
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3-23
Shifts in Demand
• Scenario
– Imagine the government gives every registered
college student in the United States an ereader.
• If some factor other than price changes, we can show
its effect by moving the entire demand curve, shifting
the curve left or right.
• In this case, there will be an increase in the number
of titanium batteries demanded at each and every
possible price
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3-24
Figure 3-4 A Shift in the Demand
Curve
Suppose universities
prohibit the use of ereaders on campus
Suppose the
government gives
an e-reader to every
student
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Determinants of Demand
• Ceteris-Paribus Conditions
– Determinants of the relationship between price
and quantity that are unchanged along a curve
– Changes in these factors cause a curve to shift
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Normal and Inferior Goods
• Normal Goods
– Goods for which demand rises as income rises;
most goods are normal goods
• Inferior Goods
– Goods for which demand falls as income rises
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Example: An Income Drop Reveals That Divorce
Services Are a Normal Good
• During the Great Recession of the late 2000s,
U.S. divorce filings dropped nationwide.
• A study revealed that many couples decided that
their individual incomes had dropped to levels too
low to feel they could “afford” to live apart, and
so they instead found ways to work through their
marital problems.
• So, divorce services are a normal good: As
married couples’ incomes declined, so did their
demand for those services.
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Shifts in Demand
• Determinants of demand
– Income
– Tastes and preferences
– The prices of related goods
• Substitutes
• Complements
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Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
• Substitutes
– Two goods are substitutes when a change in
the price of one causes a shift in demand for
the other in the same direction as the price
change
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3-30
Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
• Complements
– Two goods are complements when a change in
the price of one causes an opposite shift in the
demand curve for the other
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3-31
Example: Computer Hardware Consumers
Substitute in Favor of “Clouds”
• During the late 2000s, the real estate Web site
Zillow tracked changes in the market values of
houses by renting 500 computer servers and
performing calculations using Web links among
those servers.
• In so doing, Zillow substituted away from buying
traditional computer hardware in favor of “cloud
computing”—renting clusters of hardware that can
perform complex calculations over the Internet.
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3-32
Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
• Determinants of demand
– Expectations
• Future prices
• Income
• Product availability
– Market size (number of buyers)
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Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
The Determinants of Demand
Income: Normal Good
Price
Increase in income
increases demand
Decrease in income
decreases demand
D3
D1
D2
Q/Units
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3-34
Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
The Determinants of Demand
Income: Inferior Good
Price
Decrease in income
increases demand
Increase in income
decreases demand
D3
D1
D2
Q/Units
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3-35
Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
The Determinants of Demand
Tastes and Preferences
Price
Hybrid vehicles
• Increase in demand
SUVs
• Decrease in demand
D3
D1
D2
Q/Units
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Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
The Determinants of Demand
Price of Related Goods: Substitutes
Price
Butter and Margarine
• Price of both = $2/lb
• Price of margarine
increases to $3/lb
• Demand for butter
increases
D1
D2
Q/Butter
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Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
The Determinants of Demand
Price of Related Goods: Complements
Price
Speakers and Amplifiers
• Decrease the relative
price of amplifiers
• Demand for speakers
increases
Speakers and Amplifiers
• Increase the relative
price of amplifiers
• Demand for speakers
decreases
D3
D1
D2
Q/Speakers
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3-38
Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
The Determinants of Demand
Expectations: Income, Future Prices
Price
A higher income or
expectations of a higher future
price will increase demand
A lower income or
expectations of a lower future
price will decrease demand
D3
D1
D2
Q/Units
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3-39
Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
The Determinants of Demand
Market Size (Number of Buyers)
Price
Increase in the
number of buyers
increases demand
Decrease in the
number of buyers
decreases demand
D3
D1
D2
Q/Units
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3-40
Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
• Changes in demand versus changes in
quantity demanded
– Whenever there is a change in a ceteris paribus
condition, there will be a change in demand
• A shift of the entire demand curve to the right or to
the left
• The only thing that can cause the entire curve to
move is a change in a determinant other than the
good’s own price
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3-41
Shifts in Demand (cont'd)
• Changes in demand versus changes in
quantity demanded
– A change in a good’s own price leads to a
change in quantity demanded (a single point
on a demand curve) for any given demand
curve
• A movement along the same demand curve
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Figure 3-5 Movement Along a Given
Demand Curve
A change in the price
changes the quantity
of a good demanded,
movement along the curve
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The Law of Supply
• Supply
– Schedule showing relationship between price
and quantity supplied for a specified time
period, other things being equal
– The amount of a product or service that firms
are willing to sell at alternative prices
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3-44
The Law of Supply (cont'd)
• Law of Supply
– The higher the price of a good, the more of
that good sellers will make available over a
specified time period, other things being equal
• At higher prices, a larger quantity will generally be
supplied than at lower prices, all other things held
constant.
• At lower prices, a smaller quantity will generally be
supplied than at higher prices, all other things held
constant.
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3-45
International Example: Why the Quantity of
Brides Supplied Is Rising in China
• In China, a prospective groom traditionally
provides the prospective bride with a fixed
payment called cai li, or “bride price”, when the
couple marries.
• During the 2000s, the bride price rose from about
$300 to as much as $1,500.
• As a consequence, the number of Chinese women
accepting marriage proposals and receiving cai li
increased considerably.
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3-46
The Supply Schedule
• The supply schedule is a table relating
prices to quantity supplied at each price.
• Supply Curve
– A graphical representation of the
supply schedule
– Positively sloped line (curve) showing the direct
relationship between price and quantity
supplied, all else being equal
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3-47
Figure 3-6 The Individual Producer’s Supply
Schedule and Supply Curve for Titanium Batteries,
Panel (a)
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3-48
Figure 3-6 The Individual Producer’s Supply
Schedule and Supply Curve for Titanium Batteries,
Panel (b)
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3-49
Figure 3-7 Horizontal Summation of
Supply Curves, Panel (a)
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3-50
Figure 3-7 Horizontal Summation of
Supply Curves, Panels (b), (c), (d)
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3-51
Figure 3-8 The Market Supply Schedule and the
Market Supply Curve for Titanium Batteries, Panel
(a)
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3-52
Figure 3-8 The Market Supply Schedule and the
Market Supply Curve for Titanium Batteries, Panel
(b)
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3-53
Why Not … help college students by requiring
publishers to reduce prices of all of the
textbooks they currently supply?
• If the government were to impose legally
enforced reductions in textbook prices, the
quantity of textbooks supplied by publishers
would decline.
• Thus, such a policy action would not necessarily
“help” college students, because publishers would
make fewer textbooks available for college
students to purchase.
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3-54
Shifts in Supply
• Scenario
– A new method of manufacturing SD cards
significantly reduces the cost of production.
– What will producers of SD cards do?
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3-55
Figure 3-9 Shifts in the Supply Curve
If production costs
increase, supply
decreases
If production
costs decrease,
supply increases
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3-56
Figure 3-9 Shifts in the Supply Curve
(cont’d)
Price per Titanium Battery ($)
5
S2
S1
a
4
c
When supply increases
the quantity supplied will
be greater at each price
3
2
1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Quantity of Titanium Batteries Supplied
(millions of constant-quality units per year)
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3-57
Figure 3-9 Shifts in the Supply Curve
(cont’d)
Price per Titanium Battery ($)
5
S2
S1
a
4
b
c
3
When supply increases
the quantity supplied will
be greater at each price
d
2
1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Quantity of Titanium Batteries Supplied
(millions of constant-quality units per year)
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3-58
Figure 3-9 Shifts in the Supply Curve
(cont’d)
S3
Price per Titanium Battery ($)
5
S1
b
4
d
a
When supply decreases
the quantity supplied will
be less at each price
c
3
2
1
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
Quantity of Titanium Batteries Supplied
(millions of constant-quality units per year)
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3-59
Shifts in Supply (cont'd)
• Determinants of supply
– Cost of inputs
– Technology and productivity
– Taxes and subsidies
– Price expectations
– Number of firms in industry
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3-60
Shifts in Supply (cont'd)
The Determinants of Supply
Cost of Inputs
Price
Increase in cost
decreases supply
S3
S1
S2
Decrease in cost
increases supply
Q/Units
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3-61
Shifts in Supply (cont'd)
The Determinants of Supply
Technology and Productivity
Price
S3
S1
S2
Decreases in productivity
decrease supply
Improvements in technology or
increases in productivity
increase supply
Q/Units
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3-62
Example: How “Fracking” for Natural Gas Has
Affected Its Supply
• Traditional methods of drilling for natural gas
entailed drilling straight down to cut vertical
wells.
• Hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking,” makes it
possible to extract natural gas sideways to cut
horizontal wells.
• This technological improvement has boosted U.S.
natural gas reserves more than 50 percent since
2000.
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3-63
Shifts in Supply (cont'd)
The Determinants of Supply
Taxes and Subsidies
Price
S3
S1
S2
Increases in taxes or
decreases in subsidies
decrease supply
Decreases in taxes or
increases in subsidies
increase supply
Q/Units
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3-64
Shifts in Supply (cont'd)
The Determinants of Supply
Price Expectations
Price
Expectations of higher
future prices decrease
supply
S3
S1
S2
Expectations of lower
future prices increase
supply
Q/Units
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3-65
Shifts in Supply (cont'd)
The Determinants of Supply
Number of Firms in Industry
Price
Decrease in the
number of firms
decreases supply
S3
S1
S2
Increase in the
number of firms
increases supply
Q/Units
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3-66
Shifts in Supply (cont'd)
• Changes in supply versus changes in
quantity supplied
– Whenever there is a change in a ceteris paribus
condition, there will be a change in supply
• A shift of the entire supply curve to the right or to the
left
• The only thing that can cause the entire curve to
move is a change in a determinant other than the
good’s own price
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3-67
Shifts in Supply (cont'd)
• Changes in supply versus changes in
quantity supplied
– A change in a good’s own price leads to a
change in quantity supplied (a single point on a
supply curve) for any given supply curve
• A movement along the same supply curve
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3-68
Putting Demand
and Supply Together
• Putting demand and supply together
• Equilibrium (Market Clearing) Price
– The price that clears the market
– The price at which quantity demanded equals
quantity supplied
– The price where the demand curve intersects
the supply curve
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3-69
Figure 3-10 Putting Demand and
Supply Together, Panel (a)
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3-70
Figure 3-10 Putting Demand and
Supply Together, Panel (b)
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3-71
Putting Demand
and Supply Together (cont'd)
• Equilibrium
– The situation when quantity supplied equals
quantity demanded at a particular price
– There tends to be no movement of the price of
the quantity away from this point unless
demand or supply changes
– Equilibrium is a stable point – any point that is
not equilibrium is unstable and will not persist
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3-72
Putting Demand
and Supply Together (cont'd)
• The equilibrium price
– The price toward which the market price will
automatically tend to gravitate,
– There is no outcome better than this price for
both consumers and producers
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3-73
Putting Demand
and Supply Together (cont'd)
• Shortages
– The situation when quantity demanded is
greater than quantity supplied
– Exist at any price below the market clearing
price
– Shortages and scarcity are not the same thing
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3-74
Example: How the Housing Bust Created a
Sawdust Shortage
• Between 2006 and 2010, U.S. housing prices
plummeted, leading builders to reduce
construction of new housing and thus the amount
of wood sawed supplied for use by farmers and
manufacturers that used it to make auto parts.
• Thus, at the prevailing price just after the
decrease in sawdust supply, there was a
temporary shortage of sawdust.
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3-75
Putting Demand
and Supply Together (cont'd)
• Surpluses
– The situation when quantity supplied is greater
than quantity demanded
– Exist at any price above the market clearing
price
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3-76
Policy Example: Should Shortages in the Ticket
Market Be Solved by Scalpers?
• If you’ve ever tried to get tickets to the big game
you know all about “shortages.”
• Since the quantity of tickets is fixed, the price can
go pretty high.
• Enter the scalper.
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3-77
Figure 3-11 Shortages of Super Bowl
Tickets
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3-78
You Are There … Adjusting to a Lower Market
Clearing Price of Solar Cells
• In 2008, the equilibrium price for a solar cell
generating one watt of electrical power declined
by more than 50 percent.
• In response to this price change, a major solar
cell producer, Q-Cells, cut production of solar cells
by 7 percent in that year and reduced the
company’s staff by 10 percent.
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3-79
Issues & Applications: How the Great Recession
Identified Inferior Goods
• During the Great Recession, many people
responded to falling incomes by buying shoe
repair services rather than new shoes, electric
hair clippers to do their haircutting instead of
going to hair salons, and dial-up instead of
broadband Internet access services.
• Thus, these services are an inferior good.
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3-80
Summary Discussion
of Learning Objectives
• The law of demand says that prices
and quantity demanded are
inversely related
– At a higher price people buy less, at a lower
price people buy more
• Relative prices must be distinguished from
money prices, since people respond to
changes in relative prices
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3-81
Summary Discussion
of Learning Objectives (cont'd)
• A change in quantity demanded versus a
change in demand
– A change in quantity demanded is a movement
along the same demand curve
– A change in demand is a shift of the whole
demand curve
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3-82
Summary Discussion
of Learning Objectives (cont'd)
• The law of supply states that price and
quantity supplied are directly related
– Firms offer more at a higher price; firms offer
less at a lower price
• A change in quantity supplied versus a
change in supply
– A change in quantity supplied is a movement
along the same supply curve
– A change in supply is a shift of the whole
supply curve
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3-83
Summary Discussion
of Learning Objectives (cont'd)
• Determining market price and equilibrium
quantity
– The demand and supply curves intersect at the
market clearing, or equilibrium point
– Surpluses exist if the price of the good is
greater than the market price
– Shortages exist when the price of a good is
below the market price
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