New Horizon College English
The Foreign Language Teaching & Research Group
Research into Population Genetics
Words and Expressions
1. Learn about human and genes.
2. Understand the relation between success, genes
and parental guiding.
3. Review the skill of scanning.
4. Learn to write an IOU (收据).
5. Develop a paragraph of listing
How many skin colors of
human beings are there
across the world?
yellow skin, black or dark
brown hair and eyes,
white or pale brown skin,
blond hair, Roman nose,
blue or pale brown eyes, tall
black or dark brown skin,
dark and curly hair, big
noses, dark brown eyes,
brown or chocolate
skin, dark and curly
hair, big noses, brown
What causes these physical differences?
Without considering these physical
differences, what biological similarities
do you think the yellow, the white, the
black and the brown have?
Directions: Watch the video clip
and then discuss the topics as
follows in groups:
1.What’s the major contribution
of Gregor Mendel ?
2. According to Gregor Mendel,
why did he choose peas as the
---Born in Genoa, Italy
---Professor of Genetics at the
University of Stanford, California,
until his retirement in 1992
--- specialized mainly in the genetics
of human populations, producing
with Walter Bodmer a
comprehensive survey of the
subject in their Genetics,
Evolution and Man (1976).
---born in Genoa, Italy in 1451 and
died at Valladolid, Spain in 1506
--- The discoverer of the New
--- four transatlantic voyages (1492
－1493, 1493－1496, 1498－1500,
and 1502－1504) opened the way
for European exploration,
exploitation, and colonization
of the Americans
Columbus’s ships—the Nina, the Pinta, & the Santa Maria
Human Genetic Map
Our bodies are comprised of trillions of
microscopic units called cells, which in turn are built
up from many specific types of molecules, both large
and small. Proteins are the workshops of our cells. The
flow of genetic information is from DNA to RNA to
protein. Each protein is a linear polymer of a specific
sequence of 20 different
amino acids. DNA is also a
linear polymer comprised of
4 types of nucleotides. The
sequence of amino acids in
each protein is encoded by a
segment of DNA called a gene.
--- the name by which the lighter
skinned indigenous peoples of
southern Africa, the Khoi
(Hottentots) and the San
(Bushmen) are known.
---the earliest inhabitants of
Africa and dominated the subcontinent for millennia before
the appearance of the Nguni and
other black peoples.
Music of the Basques
--- a people who live in a small
region that straddles the border of
Spain & France form the sea in the
west into the Pyrenees in the east.
---They speak a language called
Euskara (today about 25% of the
population is fluent in that tongue).
--- No one knows exactly where
the Basques came from.
Food of the Basques
Can you recognize the words below?
What do these words have in common?
genetic modified food
n. the quality of being better, more
skillful, etc. than other people or things
In what situations will you have
a sense of superiority?
Tips: handsome, tall, rich…
He is my superior to me
adj. 1) showing that you
consider yourself better than
rank, or quality
Show us what is the
superior expression like?
More words with –
junior, senior, prior, interior, exterior
Prior to marriage, his mother was a respectable
He is still very junior within the company.
We are fascinated by the delicate interior design of
After graduation from a junior middle school, he
entered a senior middle school.
Don‘t mind his gruff（粗鲁的） exterior; he's
really very kind underneath.
n. [sing.] a tendency to consider sb. or
sth. more favorably than others偏袒/见
The university has a bias towards
/ in favor of/ against the sciences.
vt. unfairly influence attitude,
choices or decisions使有偏见
background biases him against foreigners.
bias vs. prejudice
Could you figure out the differences
between these two words?
Prejudice is, as the name implies,
A bias is a prejudice in a general or
the process of “pre-judging”
specific sense, usually in the sense
something. It implies coming to a
for having a preference to one
judgment on a subject before
particular point of view or
learning where the preponderance of
evidence actually lies, or forming a
judgment without direct experience.
Directions: Replace the italicized expressions in the following
Sentences with the expressions given below and translate the
sentences into Chinese.
We have received more than five hundred applications
to date 至今我们已经收到500多封求职信。
His experience is exactly magical and I’m moved to tears.
nothing less than他的经历简直太奇妙了我被感动得流眼泪。
What the management is saying, in fact, is that they are
going to stop recruiting new staff.
in effect 管理层的实际意思是，他们将停止招聘新员工。
The artist uses photographs together with solid objects
to produce this strange effect.
in combination with 艺术家用图片加实体的方法创造了
Starting from the first of July, all back seat passengers
must wear seat belts.
as of/from 从7月1日起，所有后座上的乘客必须系安全带。
She claimed that her family were the descendants of the
ancient Kings of Egypt.
were descended from 她声称她的家族是古埃及国王的后裔。
He has to stay in bed for a whole week because of a
be confined to 由于严重感冒，他只能呆在床上。
Scan the text very quickly and work in pairs to answer
the following questions.
What is the History and Geography of Human Genes?
What does the History and Geography of Human Genes
What do we know about the creator of the first
genetic map of the world?
Where did the scientists find the information to draw a
global family tree?
What are the four major discoveries of the research?
What does the genetic map of the world show us about
the Khoisan people?
According to genetic information, are Europeans pure of
What is the ultimate aim of the study conducted by the
How is the text organized?
Read the text quickly and fill in the following chart to
understand the structure of the text.
research into population genetics
a. the social value
of the research
d. the 4 major contributions
of the research
b. the theoretical significance
& contribution of the book
c. the process & difficulties
of conducting the research
Part One (Paras. 1-2)
The theoretical significance & contribution of the book
to be true
Human Genes is best-seller:
more than 50 years of research in___________________.
e.g. Much of what he saysamust
lot ofbepeople buy
n. a reduction in the usual price of sth.打折
Once the genes for surface features such as skin color
and height are discounted, the “races” are remarkably
alike under the skin. The variation among individuals is
much greater than the differences among groups. In fact,
there is no scientific basis for theories advocating the
superiority of any one population over another.
Part Two (Paras. 3-4)
The process & difficulties of conducting the research
How the scientists
for drawing the
collecting the information that is
found in human blood
assembling profiles of hundreds
of thousands of individuals
ensuring the populations were “pure”
confining the study to groups that
were in their present locations
Potential donors were often afraid
to cooperate, or had religious concerns.
one occasion when he was …, he was
by an angry father waving an axe.
Part Three (Paras. 5-9)
The 4 major contributions of the research
The same map,
One of them
discovery 2 in combination
jumps right off
: … cover
But their genes
a different. story discovery 1
discovery 3 on the origins of
of the medical
that have long
Besides listing, what other writing device does the author use？
Genetic maps also shed new light on the
origins of populations that have long
puzzled scientists. (Para. 7)
Many scientists consider the
a distinct 1race of
very ancient origin. … the
Khoisan people are directly
descended from the most
primitive human ancestors.
But their genes beg to differ.
The Basques of France and
Spain have Example
for several genes and their
language of unknown
origin cannot be placed
within any standard
Part Four (Para. 10)
The social value of the research
Apart from scientific value of the
research, the social significance is to
conventional notions of
race that cause racial prejudice.
The book, however, is much more than an
argument against the latest racially biased theory.
Lucais one that
colleagues for 16
the first genetic map of the world. (Para. 2)
But the book is not just an argument against
Paraphrase the latest racially biased theory. The leading
scientist of the project, ….
sum m ary
Try to fill in the blanks with the right words with
the help of the first letters.
The passage outlines the book The History and
Geography of Human Genes, which is the first genetic map
of the world. It’s based on the combined research of more
than 50 years into population genetics. It appears from this
book’s conclusion that, if we disregard (忽视) the different
surface features between different races, then we are all
very similar under the surface.
sum m ary
Scientifically there is no evidence that one race is in any
way genetically superior to any other. When conducting
the research, scientists were confronted by many
difficulties. Despite that, they made some remarkable
discoveries. Anyway according to what Cavalli-Sforza
said, the study’s ultimate aim is to “weaken conventional
notions of race” that cause racial prejudice.
Student A: a well-known genetics professor
Student B: a reporter of the university newspaper
Other students: audience with questions
Could you make an introduction to genetics?
Genetics is the study of heredity, the process in
which a parent passes certain genes onto their
children. A person's appearance -- height, hair
color, skin color, and eye color -- are determined
by genes . Other characteristics affected by
heredity: likelihood of getting certain diseases,
mental abilities and natural talents.
Some people believe that every characteristic is
controlled by a pair of genes. Is this right?
Many characteristics are controlled not by one
of genes, but by many genes, e.g. height of man.
Listen to the following news report and fill in
the blanks with the information you heard.
Scientists are questioning a widely reported finding
from the first detailed study of the human gene map.
The scientists dispute the finding that humans have
only about thirty-thousand genes.
The new report suggests the true number could be
much greater. Other scientists have long argued about
the number of human genes. Some believe that
humans have more than one-hundred-thousand genes.
The issue seemed to be settled last February. That
is when two competing teams of scientists
published their efforts to map the position of
every human gene. A private American company
called Celera Genomics published one of the
genetic maps. An international group called the
Human Genome Project prepared the other. Each
group of scientists estimated that humans have
about thirty-thousand genes. That is about two
times as many genes as some insects.
That number came as a surprise to some people.
They wondered how an organism as complex
as a human could have so few genes. It is
important for scientists to identify every human
gene in order to understand how cells work and
what causes disease. Some scientists believed
the small number of genes was good news. It
meant it would be easier to identify all the
click and understand how they work.
In the new study, the Novartis scientists compared the
two groups of human genes from the two genetic
maps. They found that the two groups of scientists
had identified two different sets of genes. Only about
half the genes are common to both groups. The
Novartis scientists say this means the number of
human genes may be about forty-thousand.
The real number of human genes may not be known
any time soon. Scientists say it probably will take
years before we have a list of the genes that control
Introduction: Topic sentence +
Body: to illustrate the phenomenon
with examples: topic sentence +
Conclusion: to state your own opinion
and make a conclusion.
Directions：For this part, you
are allowed thirty minutes to
write a composition on the topic
Pollutions. You should write at
least 120 words and you should
base your composition on the
__has become a serious problem about
which we are worried.
1、Wherever we go, we find ____.
2、And this is threatening the survival
of the human race.
Topic sentence: The real problem
with is ____.
1.It is ____ that _____.
2.It is also _____ that ________.
3.Ironically, it is _____itself that ___.
We must do something to solve ___.
1.First of all, we must let everyone
see the importance of ____.
2.Then we _____.
3.Only when everyone makes a jointeffect to ____can this problem be