Transcript genetic

新视野大学英语
New Horizon College English
第四册
外语系
The Foreign Language Teaching & Research Group
Research into Population Genetics
Section A
Teaching Objectives
Pre-reading Activities
Background Knowledge
Words and Expressions
Text Understanding
Post-reading Activities
Further Learning
图片
Teaching
Objectives
1. Learn about human and genes.
2. Understand the relation between success, genes
and parental guiding.
3. Review the skill of scanning.
4. Learn to write an IOU (收据).
5. Develop a paragraph of listing
examples.
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Pre-reading
Activities
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How many skin colors of
human beings are there
across the world?
Yellow People:
yellow skin, black or dark
brown hair and eyes,
medium height
White People:
white or pale brown skin,
blond hair, Roman nose,
blue or pale brown eyes, tall
Black People:
black or dark brown skin,
dark and curly hair, big
noses, dark brown eyes,
thick lips
Brown People:
brown or chocolate
skin, dark and curly
hair, big noses, brown
eyes
What causes these physical differences?
BACK
Without considering these physical
differences, what biological similarities
do you think the yellow, the white, the
black and the brown have?
Directions: Watch the video clip
and then discuss the topics as
follows in groups:
1.What’s the major contribution
of Gregor Mendel ?
2. According to Gregor Mendel,
why did he choose peas as the
subjects ?
Glossary:
offspring 后代
dominance 显性
segregation 分离
freckle 雀斑
Tay-Sachs disease
家族黑蒙性痴呆
Cystic Fibrosis
囊肿纤维症
BACK
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Background
Knowledge
Luca Cavalli-Sforza
---Born in Genoa, Italy
---Professor of Genetics at the
University of Stanford, California,
until his retirement in 1992
--- specialized mainly in the genetics
of human populations, producing
with Walter Bodmer a
comprehensive survey of the
subject in their Genetics,
Evolution and Man (1976).
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Christopher Columbus
---born in Genoa, Italy in 1451 and
died at Valladolid, Spain in 1506
--- The discoverer of the New
World—America
--- four transatlantic voyages (1492
-1493, 1493-1496, 1498-1500,
and 1502-1504) opened the way
for European exploration,
exploitation, and colonization
of the Americans
Columbus’s ships—the Nina, the Pinta, & the Santa Maria
Human Genetic Map
Our bodies are comprised of trillions of
microscopic units called cells, which in turn are built
up from many specific types of molecules, both large
and small. Proteins are the workshops of our cells. The
flow of genetic information is from DNA to RNA to
protein. Each protein is a linear polymer of a specific
sequence of 20 different
amino acids. DNA is also a
linear polymer comprised of
4 types of nucleotides. The
sequence of amino acids in
each protein is encoded by a
segment of DNA called a gene.
Khoisan
--- the name by which the lighter
skinned indigenous peoples of
southern Africa, the Khoi
(Hottentots) and the San
(Bushmen) are known.
---the earliest inhabitants of
Africa and dominated the subcontinent for millennia before
the appearance of the Nguni and
other black peoples.
Music of the Basques
The Basques
--- a people who live in a small
region that straddles the border of
Spain & France form the sea in the
west into the Pyrenees in the east.
---They speak a language called
Euskara (today about 25% of the
population is fluent in that tongue).
--- No one knows exactly where
the Basques came from.
Food of the Basques
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Words and
Expressions
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genetics n.
Can you recognize the words below?
politics,
economics,
electronics, classics,
physics,
mechanics,
What do these words have in common?
Matching Game
genetic engineering
基因分离
genetic modified food
基因突变
gene duplication
基因治疗
gene mutation
基因复制
gene segregation
转基因食品
gene therapy
基因工程学
superiority
n. the quality of being better, more
skillful, etc. than other people or things
优越
In what situations will you have
a sense of superiority?
Tips: handsome, tall, rich…
派生词
He is my superior to me
at
work.
工作上他是我的上司
。
adj. 1) showing that you
consider yourself better than
others有优越感的,傲慢的
2)of higher
rank, or quality
Show us what is the
superior expression like?
高级的,上等的
antonym?
More words with –
ior ?
junior, senior, prior, interior, exterior
Prior to marriage, his mother was a respectable
English teacher.
He is still very junior within the company.
We are fascinated by the delicate interior design of
the apartment.
After graduation from a junior middle school, he
entered a senior middle school.
Don‘t mind his gruff(粗鲁的) exterior; he's
really very kind underneath.
bias
n. [sing.] a tendency to consider sb. or
sth. more favorably than others偏袒/见
The university has a bias towards
/ in favor of/ against the sciences.
Translate
该大学偏重(侧重/歧视)理科。
vt. unfairly influence attitude,
choices or decisions使有偏见
Translate
His他的背景使他对外国人抱有偏见。
background biases him against foreigners.
bias vs. prejudice
Could you figure out the differences
between these two words?
Prejudice is, as the name implies,
A bias is a prejudice in a general or
the process of “pre-judging”
specific sense, usually in the sense
something. It implies coming to a
for having a preference to one
judgment on a subject before
particular point of view or
learning where the preponderance of
ideological perspective.指“依个人好
evidence actually lies, or forming a
恶或成见提出有偏差的意见或判断”.
judgment without direct experience.
指“除私人感情外毫无根据的判断或成
见, 常有恶意”。
Directions: Replace the italicized expressions in the following
Sentences with the expressions given below and translate the
sentences into Chinese.
We have received more than five hundred applications
until now.
to date 至今我们已经收到500多封求职信。
His experience is exactly magical and I’m moved to tears.
nothing less than他的经历简直太奇妙了我被感动得流眼泪。
What the management is saying, in fact, is that they are
going to stop recruiting new staff.
in effect 管理层的实际意思是,他们将停止招聘新员工。
The artist uses photographs together with solid objects
to produce this strange effect.
in combination with 艺术家用图片加实体的方法创造了
这种奇异效果。
Starting from the first of July, all back seat passengers
must wear seat belts.
as of/from 从7月1日起,所有后座上的乘客必须系安全带。
BACK
She claimed that her family were the descendants of the
ancient Kings of Egypt.
were descended from 她声称她的家族是古埃及国王的后裔。
He has to stay in bed for a whole week because of a
bad cold.
be confined to 由于严重感冒,他只能呆在床上。
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Text Understanding
Scanning Activity
Global-reading Activities
Detailed-reading Activities
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Scan the text very quickly and work in pairs to answer
the following questions.
What is the History and Geography of Human Genes?
key
What does the History and Geography of Human Genes
conclude?
key
What do we know about the creator of the first
genetic map of the world?
key
Where did the scientists find the information to draw a
global family tree?
key
What are the four major discoveries of the research?
key
What does the genetic map of the world show us about
the Khoisan people?
key
According to genetic information, are Europeans pure of
mixed?
key
What is the ultimate aim of the study conducted by the
scientists?
key
How is the text organized?
Read the text quickly and fill in the following chart to
understand the structure of the text.
Topic?
research into population genetics
a. the social value
of the research
d. the 4 major contributions
of the research
Paras.1-2
Main idea?
Paras.3-4
b. the theoretical significance
& contribution of the book
c. the process & difficulties
of conducting the research
details
Main idea?
Paras.5-9
Main idea?
Para.10
Main idea?
Part One (Paras. 1-2)
The theoretical significance & contribution of the book
While
not exactly
the History
and
vt. regard
sth. aastop-selling
unlikely book,
to be true
or
remarkablea collection
Geography
Human Genes is best-seller:
a ___________________of
importantof不理会,漠视
book that
population genetics
more than 50 years of research in___________________.
e.g. Much of what he saysamust
lot ofbepeople buy
discounted,
he always
imagines things.
the
book’s firm
conclusion:
n. a reduction in the usual price of sth.打折
Once the genes for surface features such as skin color
and height are discounted, the “races” are remarkably
alike under the skin. The variation among individuals is
much greater than the differences among groups. In fact,
there is no scientific basis for theories advocating the
genetic
superiority of any one population over another.
_________________
Part Two (Paras. 3-4)
The process & difficulties of conducting the research
How the scientists
collected materials
for drawing the
genetic map?
(Para.3)
difficulties
(Para. 4)
collecting the information that is
found in human blood
assembling profiles of hundreds
of thousands of individuals
ensuring the populations were “pure”
confining the study to groups that
were in their present locations
Potential donors were often afraid
to cooperate, or had religious concerns.
On
one occasion when he was …, he was
有一次,
面对
by an angry father waving an axe.
confronted
Part Three (Paras. 5-9)
The 4 major contributions of the research
The same map,
One of them
discovery 2 in combination
jumps right off
醒目地印在此书
with ancient
封面上
: … cover
the book’s
juman bones,
But their genes
confirms that…
tell
a different. story discovery 1
表明并非如此
Genetic maps
the latest
light on
also shed
解释,阐明
原材料
raw material
discovery 3 on the origins of
of the medical
populations
industry
that have long
discovery 4
puzzled scientists.
Besides listing, what other writing device does the author use?
Genetic maps also shed new light on the
origins of populations that have long
puzzled scientists. (Para. 7)
Many scientists consider the
KhoisanExample
a distinct 1race of
very ancient origin. … the
Khoisan people are directly
descended from the most
primitive human ancestors.
But their genes beg to differ.
The Basques of France and
Spain have Example
unusual patterns
2
for several genes and their
language of unknown
origin cannot be placed
within any standard
classification. ….
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Part Four (Para. 10)
The social value of the research
Apart from scientific value of the
research, the social significance is to
weaken
conventional notions of
___________________________
race that cause racial prejudice.
Paraphrase and
Translation
The book, however, is much more than an
argument against the latest racially biased theory.
mover A
The prime
主要倡导者
behind
thebiased
project,
Lucais one that
racially
theory
Cavalli-Sforza, ashows
Stanford
professor, labored
with
his
an unreasonable
like or
dislike
colleagues for 16
to create
less than
foryears
one race
basednothing
on personal
opinions.
the first genetic map of the world. (Para. 2)
But the book is not just an argument against
Paraphrase the latest racially biased theory. The leading
scientist of the project, ….
Translation
然而,此书还不仅仅是对目前的种族偏见理
论的反驳。这一项目的主要倡导者,斯坦福
大学教授路卡.卡瓦里-斯福尔扎,与同事一
起经过16年的努力,绘制了这一世界上首幅
人类基因分布图谱。
Post-reading
Activities
Summary
Group Work:
Interview
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sum m ary
Try to fill in the blanks with the right words with
the help of the first letters.
The passage outlines the book The History and
Geography of Human Genes, which is the first genetic map
of the world. It’s based on the combined research of more
than 50 years into population genetics. It appears from this
book’s conclusion that, if we disregard (忽视) the different
surface features between different races, then we are all
very similar under the surface.
BACK
sum m ary
Scientifically there is no evidence that one race is in any
way genetically superior to any other. When conducting
the research, scientists were confronted by many
difficulties. Despite that, they made some remarkable
discoveries. Anyway according to what Cavalli-Sforza
said, the study’s ultimate aim is to “weaken conventional
notions of race” that cause racial prejudice.
Interview
Student A: a well-known genetics professor
Student B: a reporter of the university newspaper
Other students: audience with questions
Interview
Could you make an introduction to genetics?
Genetics is the study of heredity, the process in
which a parent passes certain genes onto their
children. A person's appearance -- height, hair
color, skin color, and eye color -- are determined
by genes . Other characteristics affected by
heredity: likelihood of getting certain diseases,
mental abilities and natural talents.
Some people believe that every characteristic is
controlled by a pair of genes. Is this right?
Many characteristics are controlled not by one
of genes, but by many genes, e.g. height of man.
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Further
Learning
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click
Listen to the following news report and fill in
the blanks with the information you heard.
Scientists are questioning a widely reported finding
from the first detailed study of the human gene map.
The scientists dispute the finding that humans have
only about thirty-thousand genes.
The new report suggests the true number could be
much greater. Other scientists have long argued about
the number of human genes. Some believe that
humans have more than one-hundred-thousand genes.
The issue seemed to be settled last February. That
is when two competing teams of scientists
published their efforts to map the position of
every human gene. A private American company
called Celera Genomics published one of the
genetic maps. An international group called the
Human Genome Project prepared the other. Each
group of scientists estimated that humans have
about thirty-thousand genes. That is about two
times as many genes as some insects.
That number came as a surprise to some people.
They wondered how an organism as complex
as a human could have so few genes. It is
important for scientists to identify every human
gene in order to understand how cells work and
what causes disease. Some scientists believed
the small number of genes was good news. It
meant it would be easier to identify all the
click and understand how they work.
genes
BACK
In the new study, the Novartis scientists compared the
two groups of human genes from the two genetic
maps. They found that the two groups of scientists
had identified two different sets of genes. Only about
half the genes are common to both groups. The
Novartis scientists say this means the number of
human genes may be about forty-thousand.
The real number of human genes may not be known
any time soon. Scientists say it probably will take
years before we have a list of the genes that control
human biology.
College
education
Environmental
protection
Introduction: Topic sentence +
developing sentences
先用一句话描述当今社会的某种现象
或者事物,并且用简单的话扩展说几句
Body: to illustrate the phenomenon
with examples: topic sentence +
example 1+example2+example3
Conclusion: to state your own opinion
and make a conclusion.
Directions:For this part, you
are allowed thirty minutes to
write a composition on the topic
Pollutions. You should write at
least 120 words and you should
base your composition on the
outline below:
1、目前污染问题已成为人们普遍关
注的一个问题;
2、造成污染问题的原因;
3、解决办法。
Introduction:
Topic sentence:
__has become a serious problem about
which we are worried.
Developing sentences:
1、Wherever we go, we find ____.
2、And this is threatening the survival
of the human race.
Body:
Topic sentence: The real problem
with is ____.
Developing sentences:
1.It is ____ that _____.
2.It is also _____ that ________.
3.Ironically, it is _____itself that ___.
Conclusion:
Topic sentence:
We must do something to solve ___.
Developing sentences:
1.First of all, we must let everyone
see the importance of ____.
2.Then we _____.
3.Only when everyone makes a jointeffect to ____can this problem be
solved.
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