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Transcript PSYCHOLOGY 202

• Syllabus
• Reserve the right to
change the
schedule and
structure of the
course as needed
• Who am I?
Getting to know you
Find someone who has:
Taken a psychology class
Has green eyes
Been to Asia
Does an “extreme sport”
Has interacted with the law before
Is nervous about taking this class
Has more than three children
Feels this class will be no problem
Has run a marathon
• Talk to your partner and learn
• Why they are in this class
• What they want to do when they finish
their time at RCC
• What they do when they aren’t in class
• One other unique or interesting thing
about them
Nature vs. Nurture
• Nature• Heredity: passing of characteristics from
parent to child, “You seem just like your dad”
• Evidence of heredity:
• Temperament: physical core of personality:
sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, typical
• Developmental Psychology is the study of
progressive changes in behavior and ability
from conception to death.
Dominant & Recessive Genes
R = dominant
r = recessive
Fig. 3-3, p. 80
Identical twins. Twins who share identical genes (identical twins)
demonstrate the powerful influence of heredity. Even when they are
reared apart, identical twins are strikingly alike in motor skills, physical
development, and appearance. At the same time, twins are less alike as
adults than they were as children, which shows environmental
influences are at work
p. 79
Nature vs. Nurture
• Nurture• Environment is the sum of all
outside influences on a child
• Sensitive period: during
development, a time of
increased sensitivity to
environmental influences, also,
times when things must occur
for normal development
• Consequences of deprivation
vs. Enrichment
• Synapses are connection points
between two nerve cells where
messages pass
Nature vs Nurture
• Heredity gives us potentials and limitations,
nurture gives us learning, disease, culture
and nutrition
• Reciprocal Influences: heredity affects
• Emotional Attachment is the close bond
infants share with their primary caregivers,
examples include geese imprinting
• It can be secure, insecure or avoidant
Birthing Procedures
• What are the typical birthing procedures in
your culture of origin?
• What are alternative birthing procedures?
• How is infant caregiver bonding handled in
your culture of origin?
• What does “culture of origin mean?”
Parenting Styles
• Authoritarian, Permissive & Authoritative
• The influence of care giving styles is
• Discipline types: Power assertion, withdrawal
of love, management techniques
Authoritarian Parents
• Enforce rigid rules and demand strict
obedience to authority
• Children tend to be emotionally stiff and
lacking in curiosity
Overly Permissive
• Give little guidance
• Allow too much freedom, or don’t hold
children accountable for their actions
• Children tend to be dependent and
immature and frequently misbehave
• Provide firm and consistent guidance
combined with love and affection
• Children tend to be competent, selfcontrolled, independent, and assertive
• Picture a parent who seems to be a good a
good caregiver. What do they do? Which of
the optimal care giving behaviors do they use
(page 101)? Do you know other parents who
are authoritarian, permissive or authoritative?
What are their kids like? How would these
different parents use discipline?
Group Activity
• As reported in the newspaper from Boulder, CO
in 2002. “Tom Hansen doesn’t like they way his
life has turned out and says it’s because he was
reared improperly. Hansen, 25, has filed suit
against his mother and father, seeking $350,000
in damages because they reared him improperly
and he will need psychiatric care the remainder
of his life.” What do you think of this? What is the
evidence of ‘parental malpractice’? Should or
could a parent be held responsible for the way
their kid turns out? Would you listen to this case
if you were a judge?
Language Acquisition
• Babbling begins around 7
• Biological predisposition: idea
that humans are preprogrammed for certain skills,
such as language use
• Parentese: exaggerated way
parents talk to their children.
“Did Amy eat it ALL UP?”
• Ability to learn languages at
earlier ages
Language Acquisition
• Cooing: Repetition of vowel sounds by
infants; typically starts at 6-8 weeks
• Babbling: Repetition of meaningless
language sounds (e.g., babababa); uses
consonants B, D, M, and G; starts at 7
More on Language Acquisition
• Single-word stage: The child says one
word at a time
• Telegraphic speech: Two-word sentences
that communicate a single idea (e.g.,
“want cookie”)
Noam Chomsky and the Roots of
• Biological disposition: Presumed
readiness of humans to learn certain
skills such as how to use language
– Chomsky: Language patterns are inborn
Children’s Thinking
• Less abstract than adults
• Piaget
• Sensorimotor stage (0-2 years): object
• Preoperational stage (2-7 years): intuition
• Concrete Operational Stage (7-11 years):
Mass and weight stay the same, use of logic
and reasoning
• Formal Operations(11 + years): Abstract
• Zone of proximal development: range of
tasks child cannot accomplish alone, but can
complete with a capable partner
Piagetian Evaluation
A woman was near death from cancer , and there
was only one drug that might saver her. It was
discovered by a druggist who was charging 10 times
what it cost him to make the drug. The sick woman’s
husband could only pay $1000, but the druggist
wanted $2000. He asked the druggist to sell it
cheaper or let him pay later. The druggist said no, so
the husband became desperate and broke into the
store to steal the drug for his wife. Should he have
done that? Why or why not?
What can go wrong?
Some of the typical
features of children
suffering from fetal
alcohol syndrome
(FAS) include a small
head, a short nose, a
flattened area
between the eyes,
oddly shaped eyes,
and a thin upper lip.
Many of these
features become less
noticeable by
However, mental
retardation and other
problems commonly
follow the FAS child
into adulthood. The
child shown here
represents a
moderate example of
p. 82
Children who grow up in poverty run a high risk of experiencing many forms of
deprivation. There is evidence that lasting damage to social, emotional, and cognitive
development occurs when children must cope with severe early deprivation.
p. 83
Infant imitation. In the top row of photos, Andrew Meltzoff makes facial gestures
at an infant. The bottom row records the infant’s responses.
Fig. 3-6, p. 86
Psychologist Carolyn Rovee-Collier has
shown that babies as young as 3
months old can learn to control their
movements. In her experiments, babies
lie on their backs under a colorful crib
mobile. A ribbon is tied around the
baby’s ankle and connected to the
mobile. Whenever babies
spontaneously kick their legs, the
mobile jiggles and rattles. Within a few
minutes, infants learn to kick faster.
Their reward for kicking is a chance to
see the mobile move
Fig. 3-9, p. 88
An infant monkey clings to a
cloth-covered surrogate
mother. Baby monkeys
become attached to the cloth
“contact-comfort” mother but
not to a similar wire mother.
This is true even when the
wire mother provides food.
Contact comfort may also
underlie the tendency of
children to become attached
to inanimate objects, such as
blankets or stuffed toys.
However, a study of 2- to 3year-old blanket-attached
children found that they were
no more insecure than others
Fig. 3-12, p. 89
What are typical childhood
When or how do you know if they
have gone to far and intervention is
How could you improve those
• You are going to make cookies with
children of various ages. What would the
children be able to do based on Piaget’s
theory of child development? (pages
Sensitive Period
• A period of increased sensitivity to
environmental influences; also, a time
when certain events must occur for
normal development to take place
• Emotional attachment: Close emotional
bond that infants form with parents,
caregivers, or others
• Separation anxiety: Crying and signs of
fear when a child is left alone or is with a
stranger; generally appears around 8-12
• Separation anxiety disorder: Severe and
prolonged distress displayed by children
when separated from parents/caregivers
– Children usually grow out of this
Quality of Infant Attachment
• Secure: Stable and positive emotional
• Insecure-avoidant: Anxious emotional
bond; tendency to avoid reunion with
parent or caregiver
• Insecure-ambivalent: Anxious emotional
bond; desire to be with parent or caregiver
and some resistance to being reunited with
Fig. 3-13, p. 90
• Culturally defined period between
childhood and adulthood
• Puberty: Hormonal changes promote rapid
physical growth and sexual maturity
Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of
Psychosocial Dilemmas
theorist Erik
Erikson (1903–
1994) is best
known for his
life-stage theory
of human
p. 107
Stage One: Trust versus Mistrust
• Children are completely dependent on
– Trust: Established when babies given
adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical
– Mistrust: Caused by inadequate or
unpredictable care and by cold, indifferent,
and rejecting parents
Stage Two: Autonomy versus
Shame and Doubt (1–3)
• Autonomy: Doing things for themselves
• Overprotective or ridiculing parents may
cause children to doubt abilities and feel
shameful about their actions
Stage Three: Initiative versus Guilt
• Initiative: Parents reinforce via giving children
freedom to play, use imagination, and ask
• Guilt: May occur if parents criticize, prevent
play, or discourage a child’s questions
Stage Four: Industry versus
Inferiority (6–12)
• Industry: Occurs when child is praised for
productive activities, such as painting and
• Inferiority: Occurs if child’s efforts are
regarded as messy or inadequate
Stage Five (Adolescence): Identity
versus Role Confusion
• Identity: For adolescents; problems
answering, “Who am I?”
• Role Confusion: Occurs when adolescents
are unsure of where they are going and
who they are
Stage Six (Young Adulthood):
Intimacy versus Isolation
• Intimacy: Ability to care about others and
to share experiences with them
• Isolation: Feeling alone and uncared for in
Stage Seven (Middle Adulthood):
Generativity versus Stagnation
• Generativity: Interest in guiding the next
• Stagnation: When one is only concerned
with one’s own needs and comforts
Stage Eight (Late Adulthood):
Integrity versus Despair
• Integrity: Self-respect; developed when
people have lived richly and responsibly
• Despair: Occurs when previous life events
are viewed with regret; experiences
heartache and remorse
Where are you and your family
members according to Erik?
Subject #1 Age_______ Stage________________________________
Do this for three people, including yourself