Final Exam Review 2015x

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Transcript Final Exam Review 2015x

Final Exam Review
2015

This is just a smattering of questions to jolt your
memory of topics covered during 2nd semester.
It is NOT to be your only attempt to prepare for
your final exam.
1. The molecule at the location identified
by the arrow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Adenine
Guanine
Sugar
Phosphate
thymine
2. The molecule at the location
identified by the arrow:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Adenine
Guanine
Sugar
Phosphate
thymine
3. Because the sides of the DNA ladder run in
opposite directions, DNA is said to be…
1.
2.
3.
4.
Parallel
Nonparallel
Antiparallel
proparallel
4. Which is “bigger”?
1.
2.
Purine
Pyrimidine
5. Which of these is the monomer of
a nucleic acid?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Figure A
Amino acid
Nucleotide
DNA
A
…
….
6. If molecule Y represents a DNA molecule, then molecule W
represents what?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Glucose
Nucleotide
Amino Acid
RNA
Lipid
7. Where in the cell does transcription take
place?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Cytoplasm
Mitochondria
Nucleus
Golgi Body
Vacuole
8. mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and travels to the
cytoplasm to meet up with which organelle?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Mitochondria
Ribosome
Golgi Body
Lysosome
Nucleus
9. Where in the cell does translation, the second part of protein
synthesis, take place?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Mitochondria
Nucleus
Golgi body
Cytoplasm
10. The process taking place in location
“6”can best be described as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Transcription
Translation
Hydrolysis
Fermentation
1
2
9
8
3
4
6
5
7
11. What is molecule number 1?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Ribosome
Protein
DNA
Mitochondria
RNA
1
2
9
8
3
4
6
5
7
12. The process taking place in location
“9”can best be described as:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Transcription
Translation
Hydrolysis
Fermentation
1
2
9
8
3
4
6
5
7
13. The 3 nitrogen bases on the molecules
marked number 8 are called what?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
DNA
Anticodon
Proteins
Codon
Amino Acids
1
2
9
8
3
4
6
5
7
14. The structure marked number 7 is what?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Nucleus
DNA
Ribosome
Mitochondria
1
2
9
8
3
4
6
5
7
15. A particular strand of DNA has the following sequence
of nitrogen bases…
TCAGAGCCA
What is the corresponding strand of mRNA
1.
2.
3.
4.
AGTCTCGGT
CCCCCCCCC
AGUCUCGGU
UGGCUCUGA
16. A particular strand of mRNA has the following sequence of
nitrogen bases…
UCAGAGCCA
What is the amino acid sequence produced by this strand
1.
2.
3.
4.
Phenylalanine –
Leucine – Isoleucine
Serine – Glutamate –
Threonine
Valine – Alanine –
Glycine
Serine – Glutamate –
Proline
17. The letters B and E represent which
molecules respectively (in that order)
1.
2.
3.
4.
Deoxyribose sugar : Nitrogen
Base
Phosphate : Nitrogen Base
Ribose sugar : Phosphate
Glucose : Thymine
D
A
B
C
E
18. Cell A is considered _______ while
Cell D is considered ________.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Haploid; Diploid
Tetrad; Diploid
Diploid; Haploid
Homologous; Haploid
Cell
A
Cell
B
Cell
C
Cell
D
19. Anaphase I looks like ___.
A
1.
2.
3.
4.
A
B
C
D
B
C
D
20. Which of the numbers below best
represents a chromatid?
3
1
4
2
Cell A
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
Cell B
21. Which of the numbers below best
represents homologous chromosomes?
3
1
4
2
Cell A
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
Cell B
22. How can we best describe the
diagram below?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Two sister chromatids
Homologous chromosomes
One replicated chromosome
Haploid chromsomes
23. What process is best demonstrated by the diagram below?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Anaphase I
Segregation of alleles
Crossing over
Independent assortment
24. When does the process of crossing over
occur during meiosis?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Prophase I
Metaphase I
Anaphase I
Prophase II
Metaphase II
Anaphase II
Interphase
25. What is best illustrated by the two diagrams below?
1.
2.
3.
4.
DNA replication
Mitosis
Crossing over
Independent assortment
26. Which of the following leads to genetic
variation during meiosis?
A. Crossing Over
B. DNA replication
C. Independent assortment
D. Tetrad formation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
All of the above (A, B, C, D)
A&B
A&D
A, B, & D
A&C
27. Which of the chromosomes below are
homologous to chromosome ONE
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
A
A and B
B and C
B
C
B and D
Unibrow
2 eye brows
A
ONE
B
C
Blue Eyes
D
28. The regions on the chromosomes below are
segments of DNA that code for the production of a
flower color protein. These segments of DNA are
known as______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Loci
Genotypes
Phenotypes
Genes
The region!
29. Regions marked A and B are genes. “A” results in
the production of purple flowers. “B” results in the
production of white flowers. Which term best describes
these different flower color genes?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Homozygous
Dominant
Alleles
Recessive
A
B
30. The diagram below represents different eye
colors/shapes in fruit flies. You are currently
observing different _________for eye color.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Genotypes
Phenotypes
Loci
Chromosomes
31. Which best describes Mom’s genotype?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Roller
Non-roller
Homozygous
Dd
Dd
DD
Dd
Dd
Dd
dd
32. Which best describes Mom’s phenotype?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Roller
Non-roller
Homozygous
Dd
Dd
DD
Dd
Dd
Dd
dd
33. In the heterozygous
genotype…
1.
2.
3.
The dominant allele is “masked” by the
recessive allele
The recessive allele may be “passed on”
and show up in future generations
The recessive allele is expressed in the
phenotype
34. Based on this Punnett square, what percentage
of offspring would be homozygous?
1.
2.
3.
4.
25%
50%
75%
100%
B
B
b
B
35. Cattle have red, roan, & white coat colors.
When a red bull and white cow mate, a roan color,
which is a “mixture” of red & white, is produced.
What is this an example of?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Codominance
Sex-linked genes
Autosomal recessive
traits
Pedigrees
36. A cross is made between two parents with the
genotypes AaBB and aabb. If there are 32
offspring, how many of them would be expected to
be heterozygous for both characteristics?
1.
2.
3.
4.
32
24
16
8
37. Below is a pedigree showing red-green colorblindness, a recessive sex-linked trait in a family.
What is the genotype of the individual indicated by
the arrow?
1.
2.
3.
4.
XH Xh
Xh Y
XH Y
Xh Xh
38. In toucans, yellow beak color (Y) is dominant over green
beak color and long feathers (L) are dominant over short. A
male toucan with a green beak and long feathers mates with a
female with a yellow beak and long feathers. They have
offspring with green beaks and short feathers. What are the
genotypes of the parents?
1.
2.
3.
4.
yyLl x YyLl
YyLl x YyLl
yyll x YYLL
Yyll x yyLL
39. If the person that is the arrow is pointing to
marries a female who is homozygous dominant,
what is the possibility that they will have a daughter
that carries the red-green colorblindness gene?
1.
2.
3.
4.
0%
25%
50%
100%
40. A man with a blood type A marries a woman
with blood type B. Their first child has type O
blood. What is the possibility that they could have
another child with blood type O?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
41. When a blue sea sponge mates with yellow sea
sponge, a beautiful shade of green sea sponge is
produced. What is this an example of?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Codominance
Dihybrid crosses
Inbreeding
Incomplete dominance
42. A _______ allele is not
phenotypically expressed if a
________ allele is present.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Dominant; recessive
Recessive; dominant
Sex-linked; recessive
Sex-linked; dominant
43. Can you determine the genotype of this person?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Yes, it’s Nn
Yes, it’s NN
Yes, it’s nn
No, you can’t
N- normal gene
n- gene for cystic fibrosis
1.
2.
3.
4.
44. Which of Mendel’s laws states
that during meiosis, homologous
pairs separate randomly of each
other?
Law of Independent
Assortment
Law of Segregation
Law of Dominance
Law of Pedigrees
45. Cattle have red, roan, & white coat colors.
When a red bull and white cow mate, a roan color,
which is a “mixture” of red & white, is produced.
What is this an example of?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Codominance
Sex-linked genes
Autosomal recessive
traits
Pedigrees
46. A roan bull is mated with a
white cow. What are the expected
phenotypic ratios of their
offspring?
1.
2.
3.
4.
50% red, 50% white
50% roan, 50% red
50% roan, 50% white
75% roan, 25% red
47. The ability to roll your tongue is caused by a dominant
gene. If Taylor Swift is able to roll her tongue even though her
mother could not, and she marries her current boyfriend Calvin
Harris who cannot roll his tongue, what are the chances that
their children will be able to roll their tongue?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
48. Suppose a child is of blood group
B and its mother is of blood group O.
To what genotypic groups may the
1. A
father have belonged?
2.
3.
4.
5.
AB
BB
BO
More than one is
correct
49. If a man with a blood type AB marries a woman
with blood type O, what is the possibility that they
could have a child with blood type B?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
0%
25%
50%
75%
100%
50. Restriction enzymes are made
from what macromolecule?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Nucleic Acids
Carbohydrates
Proteins
Lipids
51. What are Sticky Ends?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Ends of a DNA segment that can pair up with
complementary ends cut with same restriction
enzyme
Ends of a DNA segment that can pair up with
complementary ends cut with different restr.
enzymes
Double stranded ends of a DNA segment
Sugar that is bound to the ends of a DNA
fragment
52. Which of these pieces of DNA
represents a palindrome?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5’ TTTCGC 3’ 3’
AAACCG 5’
5’ GAATTC 3’ 5’
CTTAAG 3’
5’ GAATTC 3’
3’CTTAAG 5’
5’ AATGCC 3’ 5’
TTACGG 3’
53. What substance is responsible
for attaching sticky ends
together?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Restriction enzymes
Gel Electrophoresis
Ligase
None of the above
54. Plasmids are…
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
a piece of circular
bacterial DNA
a piece of circular
human DNA
a vector for genes
Both 1 and 2
Both 1 and 3
55. What is a vector?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A bacterial plasmid
A virus
Something used to
transfer genes into a
host cell
All of the above
None of the above
56. A Gel Electrophoresis is
used to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Cut DNA into fragments
Separate DNA fragments
based on size
Inject DNA into a plasmid
Copy DNA to make a clone
57. A mother thinks she has located the father of
her child. Using the DNA Fingerprint below, is
this man the Father?
1.
2.
Yes
No
58. The geologic time scale begins at the formation of
Earth approximately ______ years ago with the first
signs of life appearing _____years ago:
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.6 thousand; 3.5 million
4.6 billion; 3.6 million
4.6 billion; 3.5 billion
46 billion; 36 million
59. On the timeline, what would you
expect to find at location “A”
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.5
Anaerobic Prokaryotic bacteria
Eukaryotic bacteria
Aerobic bacteria
Sponges
3.5
A
2.5
B
1.5
C
All times are in billions of years
.5
D
60. Free oxygen in the ocean appears at
location____ on the timeline thanks to the process
of ______
1.
2.
3.
4.
4.5
A; cellular respiration
B; photosynthesis
C; photosynthesis
D; human activities
3.5
A
2.5
B
1.5
C
All times are in billions of years
.5
D
61. What was produced as a result of the
Miller-Urey experiment?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Bacterial cells
Lebron James
Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
Amino acids
62.Which of the following was most
responsible for causing the dramatic
increase in life on Earth?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Increased sunlight
Increase in the
amount of fresh
water
Increase in Oxygen
in the atmosphere
The presence of
sulfur molecules
63.Organisms that made it possible for
mammals to survive on Earth must have
undergone what energy creating process?
1.
2.
3.
Respiration
Anaerobic
Respiration
Photosynthesis
64. Which of the following was most likely the
first life form on the planet:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Photosynthetic plants
Autotrophic, Aerobic bacteria
Anaerobic, Heterotrophic bacteria
Sponges
Photosynthetic bacteria
65.What type of selection is shown by the
graph below?
1.
2.
3.
Stabilizing selection
Disruptive selection
Directional selection
B
66.Infants weighing 8 lb at birth have a higher
survival rate than heavier or lighter infants. Which
graph reflects this selection:
1.
2.
3.
B
A
B
C
A
C
67.Early breeders were interested in a dog with the greatest speed. They carefully
selected from a group of hounds the dog that ran the fastest. From their offspring,
the greyhound breeders again selected those dogs that ran the fastest. By
continuing this selection for those dogs that ran faster than most of the hound dog
population, they gradually produced a dog that could run up to 64 km/h (40mph).
Which graph depicts this type of selection?
1.
2.
B
3.
A
B
C
A
C
68.Which of the following statements are part of the Theory of
Natural Selection?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Individual organisms change in
response to their environment.
Variations are found among the
members of a species.
Not all of the young in each generation
will survive.
If an organism uses a structure more
the structure will be more developed
and that trait can be passed on to their
offspring.
69.The actions of the adult giraffe resulted in the change of
the phenotype. This change in phenotype will be passed
on to the offspring. This statement supports the
___________viewpoint:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Lamarck
Mendel
Pehanic
Darwin
70.Within a decade of the introduction of a new insecticide, nearly all of the
descendants of the target pests were immune to the usual sized
dose. The most likely explanation for this immunity to the
insecticide is that_____:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Eating insecticide caused bugs to
become resistant
Eating insecticide caused bugs to
become less resistant
It destroyed organisms that cause disease
in the insects, thus allowing them to live
longer
Some insects present in the population
had a gene making them immune to the
insecticide. These insects were able to
reproduce and survive in future
generations.
71. Based on the diagram which branch of the evolutionary tree
represents the asymetrical division.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
3
1
4
2
72. Based on the diagram which branch of the evolutionary tree
represents the bilateral division.
1.
2.
3.
4.
1
2
3
4
3
1
4
2
73. What type of symmetry is shown
here?
1.
2.
3.
Bilateral
Radial
Asymmetry
74. What type of symmetry is shown
here?
1.
2.
3.
Bilateral
Radial
Asymmetry
75. What type of symmetry is shown
here?
1.
2.
3.
Bilateral
Radial
Asymmetry
76. What type of symmetry is shown
here?
1.
2.
3.
Bilateral
Radial
Asymmetry
77. What type of symmetry is shown
here?
1.
2.
3.
Bilateral
Radial
Asymmetry
78. What type of symmetry is shown
here?
1.
2.
3.
Bilateral
Radial
Asymmetry
79. Which of the following statement(s)
about roundworms is true
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Pseudocoelomates
Bilateral
Tube within a tube digestive system
Parasitic
Protostomes
80. Structure A
1.
2.
3.
4.
Anus; mouth, eyespot
Mouth; anus
Pharynx, mouth, anus
Esophagus; mouth
A
A
A
81. Body plan ____ describes the planaria
because it is a(n)___________:
A; pseudocoelomate
B; coelomate
C; acoelomate
B; pseudocoelomate
A; acoelomate
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A
B
C
82. Flatworms don’t need a circulatory or
respiratory system because:
1.
2.
3.
4.
They are thin. Oxygen can diffuse into all cells
of the body
They have a cavity where digestion takes place
allowing food to enter all cells of the body
through diffusion
They have ganglia which helps them take in
oxygen
They are porous allowing oxygen to diffuse into
their body
83. Based on the diagrams below, which organism is
most likely to store eggs in its coelom?
1.
2.
3.
A
A
B
C
B
C
84. Also known as the mantle, this structure
protects the internal organs of the squid.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
A
B
C
D
E
A
B
C
D
E
85. Water is squeezed out from this structure
in order to propel the squid through the ocean
at high speeds.
A
1. A
2. B
B
C
3. C
E
D
4. D
5. E
86. Male pigs have mammary
papillae.
1.
2.
True
False
87. This swelling just below the tail
contains what?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Kidneys
Testes
Ovaries
Intestines
88. Based on the following diagram, this is
most like a ___ due to the ___
1.
2.
3.
4.
Male; scrotum
Female; mammary papillae
Male; mammary papilla
Female; urogenital papilla
89. Structure “A”
1.
2.
3.
4.
Urogenital opening
Mammary papilla
Anus
External nare
A
90. Structure “A”
1.
2.
3.
4.
Anus
Teats
Umbilical cord
scrotum
A
91. The hole marked in the diagram is known
as a ___________________, therefore this pig
must be _______.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Mammary papillae
Anus
Urogenital Opening
Urogenital Papilla
Tail
Male
female
92. Structure “A” is known as the____.
It’s function is to_____
1.
2.
3.
4.
Mammary Papillae; nourish young
Urogenital opening; excretion
Urogenital papilla; nourish young
External nare; reproduction
A
93. The structure labeled in the
diagram is known as the?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Tongue
Hard Palate
Epiglottis
Soft Palate
94. The structure labeled in the
diagram is known as what?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Tongue
Hard Palate
Epiglottis
Soft Palate
95. The structure labeled in the
diagram is known as what?
1.
2.
3.
4.
Tongue
Hard Palate
Epiglottis
Soft Palate
96. Structure “9” is best described as the:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Esophagus
Trachea
External nare
Epiglottis
Glottis
Nasopharynx
97. Name structure 7:
1.
2.
3.
4.
Mammary papillae
Anus
Urogenital papilla
External nare
98. Name it!
1.
2.
3.
4.
Nare
Esophagus
Tongue
Papillae
99. I help prevent food from “going
down the wrong pipe.” What am I?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Esophagus
Trachea
Epiglottis
Hard palate
Soft palate