Biotechnology Notes

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Transcript Biotechnology Notes

Warm-up 1/9:
• Finish Pedigree Worksheet: #11-16
• Turn in LAB from Yesterday with
Karyotype Stapled to written section.
Warm-up 1/9:
• What is a clone?
• What do you think a DNA Finger Print is?
• Biotech Quest Quiz: Tuesday 1/14
Biotechnology Notes
Chapter 9
Biotechnology
• Scientist change an
organism’s DNA to give
it new traits.
• Possible because all
organisms have the
same Genetic Code
What are the benefits?
– Insert needed gene into an organism
– Make better vegetables/fruits
– Identify a suspect
– Increase biodiversity
Restrictive Enzymes
• Cuts DNA
– Act like molecular “scissors”
– Lets scientist take out and insert a new gene
Restrictive Enzyme
• Different restrictive enzymes cut in
different places
• They recognize nucleotides between 4
and 8 bases long
Restrictive Enzymes
• Some cut straight and make “blunt ends”
• Some cut staggered and make “sticky
ends”
Gel electrophoresis
• Uses an electrical
current to separate
DNA sequences that
were cut by restrictive
enzymes.
Gel electrophoresis
• Electrical currents
pull the pieces
through a gel
• Smaller fragments
can move faster &
farther than longer
fragments
Gel electrophoresis
• Each piece creates
a band on the gel
• Creates a DNA
fingerprint
• Everyone has their
own unique DNA
fingerprint
DNA Fingerprinting
• Made by restrictive enzymes and gel
electrophoresis
(mother) (child 1) (child 2) (father)
• What is it used for?
– Paternity tests
– Evidence in criminal cases
– Studying biodiversity
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Plasmid
– loops of DNA in
bacteria
– restriction enzymes
cut plasmid and
foreign DNA
– foreign gene inserted
into plasmid
Recombinant DNA
• Contains genes from more than one
organism
(bacterial DNA)
Transgenic Organism
• Has one or more genes inserted in it’s DNA
– Has recombinant DNA
Transgenic Organism
• Transgenic bacteria used to make human
protein
– Gene inserted into plasmid
– Plasmid inserted into bacteria
– Bacteria makes the protein the gene coded for
Uses of Transgenic Organisms
• Transgenic plants
used in agriculture
– Creates crops
resistant to frost,
diseases, and
insects
– Food produced
more quickly and
cheaply
Uses of Transgenic Organism
• Transgenic animals
– Used to study diseases and gene functions.
Concerns about Genetic Engineering
– possible long-term health effects of eating
GM foods
– possible effects of GM plants on ecosystems
and biodiversity
Class work
1. Vocabulary Chart
Cloning & Gene Therapy Notes
Genetic Screening
• Test DNA to detect genetic diseases
– determines risk of having
or passing on a genetic
disorder
– can detect genes
related to an increased
risk of cancer
– can detect some genes
known to cause genetic
disorders
DMD
N
Gene Therapy
• Is the replacement of faulty genes
• Gene therapy replaces defective or missing
genes, or adds new genes, to treat a disease.
Gene Therapy
• Has many technical difficulties
– Inserting gene into correct cell
– Determining effect on other genes
• Only way to cure genetic disease is to
change the affected DNA
Cloning
• A clone is a genetically identical copy of a gene or of an
organism.
Cloning
• Cloning occurs in nature.
– bacteria (binary fission)
– some simple animals (budding, regeneration)
– Identical twins
Cloning
• Mammals can be cloned through a process called
nuclear transfer.
– nucleus is removed from an egg cell
– nucleus of a cell from the animal to be cloned is
implanted in the egg
Benefits of Cloning
• Human organ transplants
• Save endangered species
Concerns of Cloning
• Low success rate
• Clones less healthy than original
• Ethical controversy
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