Genetic Engineering

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Transcript Genetic Engineering

Your “Do Now”
2/28
• Get out the assignment from yesterday
(Sickle Cell)
• Work on the
questions on
Part C
• If done,
review the steps
in Part B (what we did)
Your “Do Now”
2/28
½ sheet of paper (up front)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
What do you call making mRNA from DNA?
What do you call making a protein from mRNA?
Genes code for _________ which determine our traits
What do you call sets of 3 bases in mRNA?
What are set of 3 bases in tRNA that match-up to
these?
Agenda
2/28
• Notes #4 Genetic Engineering
• Genetic Engineering
• Pros & Cons Article
Learning Target
• I can explain what genetic engineering is
and its potential benefits and risks
Fact or Fiction?
SCIENTISTS
CLONE DINOSAUR!
LAND-MINE DETECTING
PLANTS CREATED
WOOLLY MAMMOTH
TO BE CLONED
CH 12 Notes #4
Genetic Engineering
• Changing the genes (DNA) of an organism
• When an organism’s DNA is changed, it makes
different proteins
TYPES OF GENETIC
ENGINEERING
Recombinant DNA
• Combining pieces of
DNA from different
organisms
• Why do it?
– Put traits you want
into an organism that
doesn’t have them
• First used in the
1970’s with bacteria.
Making Recombinant DNA
(not on notes)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8rXizmLjegI
How can recombinant DNA be used?
Examples
1. Bacteria making human insulin
2. Curing/treating genetic diseases
3. Bacteria that “eat” oil spills
More examples-4. Plants that make
pesticides
5. Better foods (more
“yield”)
•
70-75% of food in
supermarket is
genetically modified.
What do you think about eating
genetically modified foods?
(Putting DNA from one food into another)
What do you call an organism
that has genes from another
organism in it?
Transgenic organisms: any organism with
another organism’s DNA in it
Examples
1.
Mice – used to study human
immune system
2.
Chickens – more resistant to
infections
3.
Goats, sheep and pigs –
produce human proteins in
their milk
4.
Tomatoes —longer lasting
5.
Corn –making insecticides
Transgenic Goat
(not on notes)
Human DNA in
a Goat Cell
.
This goat contains a human
gene that codes for a blood
clotting agent. The blood
clotting agent can be harvested
in the goat’s milk.
How to Create a
Transgenic Animal
Add the desired
DNA to an egg
cell
Cloning
• Making an exact copy of an organism
using its DNA
Creating Dolly
(not on notes—follow along)
Stage 1
Cell collected from a sheep’s udder.
Stage 2
Nucleus is removed from unfertilized egg
of second sheep.
Stage 3
Udder cell is inserted into egg with no
nucleus.
Stage 4
Insertion is successful.
Stage 5
Electrical charge is supplied.
Stage 6
Cells begin to divide.
Stages 7 & 8
Your “Do Now”
2/28
Get out Notes #4 and be ready to answer these
questions:
1. What is genetic engineering?
2. What are 2 ways genetic engineering is used?
3. What are transgenic organisms?
4. What is cloning?
Agenda
2/28
• Finish Notes #4
• Genetic Engineering Online Exploration
– I will put you in pairs today
• Share-out with the class
Summarizing Cloning Steps
1. Get a sample of an organism’s DNA
2. Insert it into an egg cell
3. Put the egg in another female
We’ve cloned sheep
and other animals
Can we clone a human?
House Bill 2505
Human Cloning Prohibition Act
• Prohibition on human cloning
• Criminal Penalty: Up to 10 years
imprisonment
• Civil penalty: Minimum 1 million dollar fine
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7tbxN5uwaqA
We cannot clone humans yet…
BUT what have we done with
human DNA?
The Human Genome
• “Map” of human genes (from DNA)
• Took 13 years to map all 20,000-25,000
genes in human DNA
Gene Therapy
• Correcting a genetic disorder by replacing
bad DNA with correct gene
Solving Crimes
Getting a lot of evidence from a little bit of DNA ( PCR)
•
PCR allows scientists to
make many copies of a
piece of DNA.
1. Heat the DNA so it
“unzips”.
2. Add the complementary
nitrogenous bases.
3. Allow DNA to cool so the
complementary strands
can “zip” together.
Gel Electrophoresis
• This technology
allows scientists to
identify someone’s
DNA!
• Can be used to solve
crimes
• OR prove paternity
Proving paternity B
Compare the
bands from the
baby with bands
from Mom and
Dad
a
b
y
M
o
m
M
a
n
1
M
a
n
2
Genetic Engineering
Controversies
Possible dangers of genetic
engineering in crops
• Many varieties of corn are clones of the
same plant
• If a bacteria or virus infects one plant,
it could kill many!
Ethical issues with human genetic
engineering
• Should we be allowed to choose our
baby’s traits?
• Should we be allowed to clone a person?
Genetic Engineering Reading
• Exploring the pros and cons
• HIGHLIGHT or UNDERLINE any pros or
cons
• ADD to notes page
BACK OF ARTICLE
Quick write
• You are 18 and going to vote for a
candidate. One wants to allow all kinds of
GE to be allowed and one is against and
GE. Which one would you vote for and
why? (back up your claim with examples)
GE Online Activity
•
•
•
•
I will put you in partners
Follow directions on the sheet
Pay attention to the times on the sheet!
Call us over if you need help
GE Online Activity Share-out
• How can genetic engineering be used in
food, medicine, and other areas of life?
• What makes it controversial?