Transcript lesson #1

BASIC GENETICS
A LA
MENDEL
GRAPHICS IN THIS SERIES ARE
FROM PRINTMASTER GOLD
UNLESS OTHERWISE INDICATED
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GREGOR MENDEL
MONK / MATHEMATICIAN
GARDENING
SCI METHOD
SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
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BASIC GENETIC DEFINITIONS
GRAPHICS FROM PRINCIPLES OF ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY BY TORTORA
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
CHROMOSOME:
ONE OF THE SMALL THREADLIKE STRUCTURES IN THE
NUCLEUS OF A CELL……...
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
CHROMOSOME (CONT’D):
………THAT BEARS THE SAME
GENETIC MATERIALS. COMPOSED OF DNA.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
CHROMOSOME :
LIKE A “STRING
OF PEARLS “
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
GENE:
UNIT OF HEREDITY; A SEGMENT
OF DNA LOCATED
IN A DEFINITE...
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
GENE (CONTINUED):
POSITION ON A PARTICULAR
CHROMOSOME. A CODED
SEGMENT OF CHROMOSOME.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
GENE (CONTINUED):
LIKE A BEAD (THE GENE)
ON A STRING OF PEARLS
(THE CHROMOSOME).
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
GENE :
A PEARL ON
THE
NECKLACE
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
GENE :
EVERY TRAIT (EYES,
HAIR ,ETC)
IS DUE TO A
PAIR OF GENES.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
GENE [CONT.’):
…GENES. ONE CAME
FROM THE FATHER
AND ONE CAME
FROM THE MOTHER.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
GENE (CONTINUED):
BOTH MOM & DAD HAVE A
PAIR OF THEIR OWN
GENES FOR THAT TRAIT.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
FOR EXAMPLE:
DAD IS TALL {Tt}
MOM IS SHORT {tt}
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
ALLELE:
A POSSIBLE GENE FOR A
SPECIFIC TRAIT. MOST
TRAITS HAVE TWO.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
ALLELE:
THERE IS A DOMINANT GENE
FOR A TRAIT AND THERE
IS /ARE RECESSIVE(S)
GENE(S) FOR THAT TRAIT.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
ALLELE:
SOME TRAITS, LIKE HUMAN
BLOOD TYPES, HAVE MORE;
IE: A, B, & O.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
DOMINANT:
THE TRAIT THAT
CAN BE SEEN IN
HETEROZYGOUS
GENES.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
RECESSIVE:
THE TRAIT THAT
CANNOT BE SEEN
IN HETEROZYGOUS GENES.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
IE: HEIGHT
TALL IS
DOMINANT...
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
…OVER
SHORT
(RECESSIVE)
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
IE: HAIR
COLOR
BROWN IS
DOMINANT...
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
…OVER
BLONDE
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
HOMOZYGOUS:
BOTH GENES
FOR THE
TRAIT ARE THE
SAME.
{tt}
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
HETEROZYGOUS:
GENES FOR
THE TRAIT ARE
DIFFERENT.
{Tt}
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
HYBRID:
CONTAINS
TWO ALLELES
FOR A TRAIT.
IE:
Tt
Bb
Rr
Ll
Uu
etc.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
tt
PURE:
BOTH ALLELES FOR A TT
TRAIT ARE THE SAME. LL
ETC.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
PURE:
(T/F) FOR MOST TRAITS
THERE ARE TWO
POSSIBLE FORMS OF
THE PURE TRAIT.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
PURE:
ANS: TRUE….THE INDIVIDUAL CAN CONTAIN TWO
DOMINANT GENES, OR….
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
PURE:
ANS (CONTINUED):
TWO RECESSIVE GENES
FOR THAT TRAIT.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
PURE:
BOTH ALLELES
FOR A
TRAIT ARE
THE SAME.
IE:
TT
tt
RR
rr
ww
etc.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
GENOTYPE:
THE ALLELES, SEEN OR
UNSEEN, RESPONSIBLE
FOR A TRAIT IN SOMEONE.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
HETEROZYGOUS:
GENES FOR
THE TRAIT ARE
DIFFERENT.
{Tt}
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
PHENOTYPE:
THE TRAIT THAT CAN BE
SEEN IN SOMEONE.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
HOMOZYGOUS:
BOTH GENES
FOR THE
TRAIT ARE THE
{SHORT}
SAME.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
PHENOTYPE:
(T/F) PHENOTYPES CAN
BE EXPRESSED IN
SYMBOLS.
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
PHENOTYPE:
ANS:
FALSE…PHENOTYPES
ARE EXPRESSED IN
WORDS; IE: SHORT, TALL, ETC
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
PHENOTYPE:
NOTE:
GENOTYPES ARE EXPRESSED
t
AS SYMBOLS; IE: T
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PUNNET SQUARE
A PUNNETT SQUARE IS
A DEVISE USED TO PREDICT THE GENOTYPES
& PHENOTYPES OF F1
GENERATIONS.
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PUNNET SQUARE
F1
THE FIRST
GENERATION OF
OFFSPRING OF A
PARENTAL PAIR.
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PUNNETT SQUARE
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
POSSIBLE
OVUM FOR
THAT TRAIT:
{tt}
OR
t
t
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BASIC GENETICS
D E F I N I T I O N S:
POSSIBLE
POLLEN FOR
THAT TRAIT:
OR
T
t
{Tt}
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?
{tt}
OFFSPRING
?
{Tt}
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PUNNETT SQUARE
POSSIBLE
POLLEN AFTER
MEIOSIS
T
t
POSSIBLE
OVUM AFTER
MEIOSIS
{Tt}
t
t
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PUNNETT SQUARE
t
t
T
t
{T}
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PUNNETT SQUARE
t
T
t
t
Tt
{T}
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PUNNETT SQUARE
T
t
t
t
Tt
Tt
{T}
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PUNNETT SQUARE
t
t
T
Tt
Tt
t
tt
{T}
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PUNNETT SQUARE
t
t
T
Tt
Tt
t
tt
tt{T}
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PUNNETT SQUARE
POSSIBLE
OFFSPRING:
(GENOTYPES)
Tt
Tt
tt
tt
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PUNNETT SQUARE
POSSIBLE
OFFSPRING:
(PHENOTYPES)
TALL
TALL
SHORT
SHORT
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PUNNETT SQUARE
THEREFORE, OF 16 OFFSPRING
8 ARE PREDICTED TO BE TALL,
AND 8 ARE PREDICTED
TO BE SHORT.
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PUNNETT SQUARE
THEREFORE, OF 16 OFFSPRING
8 ARE PREDICTED TO BE {Tt}
AND 8 ARE PREDICTED
TO BE {tt}.
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
1. USE A CAPITAL
LETTER MATCHING
THE FIRST LETTER
OF THE DOMINANT
TRAIT.
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
IE: A TALL PLANT
HAS A “T” TO REPRESENT TALLNESS.
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
2. USE A SMALL CASE
CURSIVE LETTER TO
REPRESENT THE….
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
RECESSIVE TRAIT.
DO NOT CHANGE
LETTERS!!!!!!!
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
IE: A SHORT PLANT
t
HAS A “ ” TO REPRESENT SHORTNESS.
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
3. USE A DIFFERENT
LETTER FOR EACH
TRAIT.
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
4. ABBREVIATE
THE GENOTYPE OF
EACH PARENT.
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PUNNET SQUARE
IE:DAD IS HOMOZYGOUS TALL;
MOM IS SHORT.
TALL IS DOMINANT
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PUNNET SQUARE
DAD’S GENOTYPE
IS Tt.
MOM MUST HAVE A
tt GENOTYPE. WHY?
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PUNNET SQUARE
IF MOM WERE ANYTHING ELSE, SHE’D
BE TALL.
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
5. LIST THE POSSIBLE
GAMETES THAT
EACH PARENT
CAN FORM.
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
IE: DAD CAN PRODUCE A “T” SPERM
OR A “t” SPERM
DURING MEIOSIS.
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
IE: MOM CAN ONLY
PRODUCE “t” EGGS.
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PUNNET SQUARE
RULES:
6. USE THE PUNNETT SQUARE TO
LIST THE POSSIBLE
OFFSPRING IN F1
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PUNNETT SQUARE
t
T
t
t
Tt
T t
t
t t
t t
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PUNNETT SQUARE
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