Transcript PowerPoint

Understanding The Basis For
Biotechnology Research
Common Core/ Next Generation Science Standards Addressed!
MS‐LS1‐1. Conduct an investigation to provide evidence that living things are
made of cells; either one cell or many different numbers and types of cells.
[Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on developing evidence that living
things are made of cells, distinguishing between living and non-living cells,
and understanding that living things may be made of one cell or many and
varied cells.]
MS‐LS1‐2. Develop and use a model to describe the function of a cell as a
whole and ways parts of cells contribute to the function. [Clarification
Statement: Emphasis is on the cell functioning as a whole system and the
primary role of identified parts of the cell, specifically the nucleus,
chloroplasts, mitochondria, cell membrane, and cell wall.] [Assessment
Boundary: Assessment of organelle structure/function relationships is limited
to the cell wall and cell membrane. Assessment of the function of the other
organelles is limited to their relationship to the whole cell. Assessment does
not include the biochemical function of cells or cell parts.]
Agriculture, Food and Natural Resources Standards
NRS.01.01. Apply methods of classification to examine natural resource availability and
ecosystem function in a particular region.
Sample Measurement: The following sample measurement strands are provided to guide the
development of measurable activities, at different levels of proficiency, to assess students’
attainment of knowledge and skills related to this performance indicator. The topics represented
by each strand are not all-encompassing.
• NRS.01.01.01.a. Summarize and classify the different kinds of natural resources using
• common classification schemes (e.g., living versus non-living, renewable versus
nonrenewable, native versus introduced, etc.).
Bell Work!
• Objective 1: Identify and explain terms
associated with genetics.
• Objective 2: Identify the components of
DNA and describe its structure.
• Objective 3: Explain how DNA is
replicated when cells divide.
• The cell - a basic unit of life containing
living material bound by a membrane. The
cell also contains genetic material.
• 1. Within each cell there is a nucleus that
contains genetic material.
• 2. The long molecule that carries the genetic
material is DNA or deoxyribonucleic acid.
• 3. The DNA is organized into tightly coiled
strands known as chromosomes.
• 4. Segments of the chromosomes that code
for specific traits of the organism are genes.
Dominant and Recessive Traits
The genetic material in the cell
determines the appearance of an
organism and all chemical processes.
• 1. Genes that govern variations of the
same characteristics and that occupy
corresponding locations on the
chromosomes are alleles.
Dominant and Recessive Traits
• 2. Alleles may be dominant or recessive. The
trait coded by a dominant allele is always
expressed, while those of a recessive allele
are only expressed when the two alleles are
the same.
• 3. When the two alleles are the same they are
said to be homozygous. When they are
different they are heterozygous.
Dominant and Recessive Traits
• 4. The genetic constitution
of an organism is called
the genotype. Genotype is
most often expressed in
• 5. The actual appearance
of an organism with
respect to the alleles is
the phenotype.
Structure of DNA
• Chromosomes contain
long strands of DNA
• DNA consists of two
strands of nucleotides,
joined by hydrogen
bonds and twisted into
a double helix
• Every DNA nucleotide
contains a sugar, a
phosphate group, and a
Nucleotides Bond to
Form Double Helix
• 1. The arrangement
of the nucleotides
creates a double
helix or a twisted
ladder appearance.
• 2. Adenine always
pairs with thymine,
and cytosine always
pairs with guanine.
The End!
Mitosis and Meiosis
• 1. Cellular division
resulting in exact
duplicate cells is
• 2. Cellular division
resulting in sex cells
is meiosis.