Transcript DNA

D
eoxyribo-Nucleic Acid
_____________
A ladder
twisted
Double helix
DNA makes up genes that
traits of
determines the ______
all living things….such as:
Eye color, skin color,
texture, freckles, hair
color, style…etc
Makes up _____________
GENES
Controls ____________
TRAITS
Forms
CHROMOSOMES
_______________________
NUCLEUS of all cells
Found in the __________
The code is found in the
RUNGS
“________”
of the ladder.
Each rung is a combination of
2 nitrogen
bases
______
________________
bonded
together.
The Nitrogen bases are:
C = CYTOSINE
G = GUANINE
T = THYMINE
A = ADENINE
“A” bonds ONLY with “___”
T
“C” bonds ONLY with “___”
G
A
C
G
T
A
A
G
G
C
This goes on for the entire length of the DNA
billions of
molecule, which consists of __________
nitrogen bases.
T
T
T
C
C
G
A
The ____________________
sequence of letters
in DNA will
determine what the trait is.
For example: Lets take a look
at the letters of the alphabet…
If you change
the letters to
“O W L” means
“A predatory
bird”
However…
“L O W”
it no longer
means…
“A predatory
bird”
Since DNA consists of billions of
nitrogen bases, the amount of
variation among organisms is HUGE.
If you change only one letter, the
entire code will be changed, and
therefore the organism will be
different!!
•DNA makes up a
chromosome
_______________.
•Chromosomes are
found in the nucleus
of every cell in the
body!!
A gene is a
gene
Small piece
____________
____________
Of DNA
that codes for
one
specific
____________
______.
trait
30,000
There are about __________
genes in
an entire DNA molecule
nucleus
DNA contains the
code for what
protein will be
made by the cell
ribosome
RNA is a “__________”
helper
molecule. It helps
carry the DNA code to
the __________
ribosome so it
can make the protein.
(Physical trait)
Skin color/texture
Eye color/shape
Height
Bone density
Hair texture
Etc…
Oops!!
•When the sequence of letters
is changed. Since the code
no longer reads the correct
way, the cell does not make
the correct protein.
•Consequently, a different trait
may appear.
•They are usually BAD
Deoxyribo-nucleic acid
1. What does DNA mean? _____________________________________
2. Suppose one side of a DNA molecule had the bases
A-A-G-T-C- G- A-T-G-G-C-A-C-C. What would the other side of the DNA look like?
____________________________________________
T-T-C-A-G-CT-A-C-C-G-T-G-G
carry the DNA code to the ribosome
3. What is the function
of RNA? _____________________________
A random change in the DNA code
4. What is a mutation? ______________________________________
5. What term best describes what a DNA looks like? _________________
Double helix
6. Explain the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, and genes?
A chromosomes
is made up of DNA, which is consists of about 30,000 genes
__________________________________________________________
7. If everyone consists of only 4 nitrogen bases (A-T-C-G), why are no two people alike?
__________________________________
bc it’s the sequence of nitogen bases that makes us different
46
8. How many chromosomes does a human have? ___________
About 30,000
9. How many genes does a human have? ___________
10. Therefore, approximately how many genes are on a single chromosome? ~
______
650
11. If 24% of a DNA molecule is Adenine, what percent would be…
24
Thymine = ____%
26
Guanine= _____%
26
Cytosine= _____%
DNA MOLECULE
_______________
(SHAPE)
SIDE PARTS
RUNG PARTS
___________
___________
___________
&
___________
___________
___________
What is the difference between a cell,
nucleus, chromosome, genes, and DNA?
How are they related?
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN…
Cell: ________________________________
Nucleus: ________________________________
Chromosome: _________________________________
Gene(s): _____________________________________
DNA: ________________________________________
How are they related? _____________________________
_______________________________________________
CHANGE
A MUTATION is any _________________
in copying the DNA message.
CHANGE = WRONG ______________
BASE PAIR
MESSAGE
A wrong base in the DNA gives the cell the wrong __________________.
If a cell has the wrong message, the wrong type of ________________
is
PROTEIN
made.
If the wrong protein is made, the wrong ________________
may appear.
TRAIT
1. Simple copying mistakes during cell reproduction
1. A mutation causes a change in an offspring’s traits only when it
takes place in the ___________________
PARENTS
sex cells.
2. Chemicals
1. _______________
NICOTINE
ASBESTOS
2. _______________
3. Radiation
1. _______________
SUN
X-RAY
2. _______________
__________________:
MUTAGEN
Any agent that can cause alterations to DNA
HARMFUL MUTATIONS
HELPFUL MUTATIONS
Any trait that interferes with the
REPRODUCTION
______________________
Any trait that enhances an organisms
REPRODUCE
ability to______________________
and _________________
SURVIVAL
of an
organism.
and _________________
SURVIVE
in its
ENVIRONMENT
_____________________.
IDENTICAL DNA
1. The term “clone” refers to organisms having ____________________
copies
Two “clones” are exact _______________
of each other.
GENES
TRAITS
DNA
Same _______
= Same __________
= Same _________
2. Examples of clones:
IDENTICAL TWINS
ONE fertilized egg
a. _________________:
form from the splitting of _____
LABORATORY
b. Clone organisms produced in ___________________
20
20
20
20
20
Remove
Body Cells
10
Remove
Unfertilized
Ovum
10
Destroy
Nucleus
Insert Nucleus
from Dark frog
into egg of Light
frog