DNA makes up genes that
determines the ______
all living things….such as:
Eye color, skin color,
texture, freckles, hair
Makes up _____________
NUCLEUS of all cells
Found in the __________
The code is found in the
of the ladder.
Each rung is a combination of
The Nitrogen bases are:
C = CYTOSINE
G = GUANINE
T = THYMINE
A = ADENINE
“A” bonds ONLY with “___”
“C” bonds ONLY with “___”
This goes on for the entire length of the DNA
molecule, which consists of __________
sequence of letters
in DNA will
determine what the trait is.
For example: Lets take a look
at the letters of the alphabet…
If you change
the letters to
“O W L” means
“L O W”
it no longer
Since DNA consists of billions of
nitrogen bases, the amount of
variation among organisms is HUGE.
If you change only one letter, the
entire code will be changed, and
therefore the organism will be
•DNA makes up a
found in the nucleus
of every cell in the
A gene is a
that codes for
There are about __________
an entire DNA molecule
DNA contains the
code for what
protein will be
made by the cell
RNA is a “__________”
molecule. It helps
carry the DNA code to
ribosome so it
can make the protein.
•When the sequence of letters
is changed. Since the code
no longer reads the correct
way, the cell does not make
the correct protein.
•Consequently, a different trait
•They are usually BAD
1. What does DNA mean? _____________________________________
2. Suppose one side of a DNA molecule had the bases
A-A-G-T-C- G- A-T-G-G-C-A-C-C. What would the other side of the DNA look like?
carry the DNA code to the ribosome
3. What is the function
of RNA? _____________________________
A random change in the DNA code
4. What is a mutation? ______________________________________
5. What term best describes what a DNA looks like? _________________
6. Explain the relationship between DNA, chromosomes, and genes?
is made up of DNA, which is consists of about 30,000 genes
7. If everyone consists of only 4 nitrogen bases (A-T-C-G), why are no two people alike?
bc it’s the sequence of nitogen bases that makes us different
8. How many chromosomes does a human have? ___________
9. How many genes does a human have? ___________
10. Therefore, approximately how many genes are on a single chromosome? ~
11. If 24% of a DNA molecule is Adenine, what percent would be…
Thymine = ____%
What is the difference between a cell,
nucleus, chromosome, genes, and DNA?
How are they related?
WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN…
How are they related? _____________________________
A MUTATION is any _________________
in copying the DNA message.
CHANGE = WRONG ______________
A wrong base in the DNA gives the cell the wrong __________________.
If a cell has the wrong message, the wrong type of ________________
If the wrong protein is made, the wrong ________________
1. Simple copying mistakes during cell reproduction
1. A mutation causes a change in an offspring’s traits only when it
takes place in the ___________________
Any agent that can cause alterations to DNA
Any trait that interferes with the
Any trait that enhances an organisms
1. The term “clone” refers to organisms having ____________________
Two “clones” are exact _______________
of each other.
= Same __________
= Same _________
2. Examples of clones:
ONE fertilized egg
form from the splitting of _____
b. Clone organisms produced in ___________________
from Dark frog
into egg of Light