B1 Revision - Rougemont School

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Transcript B1 Revision - Rougemont School

Environment – Answer the Following
• Outline intensive farming methods that can be
used to increase yields from plants.
B1
Environment – Answer the Following
• Outline intensive farming methods that can be
used to increase yields from plants.
1. Fertilisers – more plant growth
2. Pesticides – kill pests which would eat crops
3. Disease control – prevents loss of crop from disease
Environment – Answer the Following
• Outline intensive farming methods that can be
used to increase yields from animals.
B1
Environment – Answer the Following
• Outline intensive farming methods that can be
used to increase yields from animals.
1.
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3.
4.
Disease control – prevents loss of animals to disease
Battery methods – reduced space for animals
So animals use less energy
So less food needed
Environment – Answer the Following
• Describe how untreated sewage and fertilisers
may ultimately cause fish to die.
B1
Environment – Answer the Following
• Describe how untreated sewage and fertilisers
may ultimately cause fish to die.
1.
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Fertilisers/sewage encourage rapid growth of plants
Deeper plants die due to lack of light
Microbes respire as they break down dead plants
So using up the (dissolved) oxygen
Animals/fish living in the water die as a result
Environment – Answer the Following
• Describe what is meant by bioaccumulation and
how it arises
B1
Environment – Answer the Following
• Describe what is meant by bioaccumulation and
how it arises
1. Bioaccumulation – the increase in concentration chemicals
in animal tissues
2. As you move up the food chain
3. Caused by chemicals which are not broken down by cells
4. Becomes toxic higher up the food chain
5. Results in death/reduced fertility
Environment – Answer the Following
• Draw a typical pyramid of biomass for a food
chain consisting of 3 organisms and explain why
it will always have this shape.
B1
Environment – Answer the Following
• Draw a typical pyramid of biomass for a food
chain consisting of 3 organisms and explain why
it will always have this shape.
1. Drawing
Always pyramid shape because:
2. Much of the biomass/energy consumed by an organism
is NOT used for growth
3. So NOT passed on to the next stage in the food chain
4. Energy used in movement/maintaining body temp
Environment – Answer the Following
• Outline the main processes that contribute to
the carbon cycle (you may wish to draw the
cycle first).
B1
Environment – Answer the Following
• Outline the main processes that contribute to the
carbon cycle (you may wish to draw the cycle first).
1.
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Photosynthesis –
Where carbon dioxide is removed from air by plants
Respiration –
Which carbon dioxide in released into the air
Feeding –
Which transfers carbon from plants to animals
Death –
Which provides materials for organisms to decay
Decay –
The break down of waste materials by respiring microbes
Environment – Answer the Following
• Outline the main processes that contribute to the
nitrogen cycle (you may wish to draw the cycle first).
B1
Environment – Answer the Following
• Outline the main processes that contribute to the
nitrogen cycle (you may wish to draw the cycle first).
1.
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Some bacteria convert nitrogen in the air to nitrates in soil
Nitrates in the soil are used by plants to make protein
Animals obtain nitrogen by eating plant proteins
Animal waste returns nitrogen to the soil as urea/in faeces
Nitrogen returned to the soil when animals die
as a result of decay by microorganisms
Which first convert to ammonia
Before soil bacteria convert the ammonia into nitrates
Other soil bacteria convert soil nitrates into nitrogen in the
air
Inheritance – Answer the Following
• What is meant by ‘genetic/DNA profiling’ and
describe how it works.
B1
Inheritance – Answer the Following
• What is meant by ‘genetic/DNA profiling’ and
describe how it works.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Used to show similarity between two DNA samples
DNA cut into short pieces
Then separated into bands
Pattern of bands is unique to each individual (except
genetically identical twins)
5. So can be used for identification
6. Related individuals have similar pattern/share bands
7. so can be used for classification/paternity cases
Inheritance – Answer the Following
• Draw a diagram and explain it to show how the
probability of parents having a boy or a girl is
50:50.
B1
Inheritance – Answer the Following
• Draw a diagram and explain it to show how the
probability of parents having a boy or a girl is
50:50.
Inheritance – Answer the Following
• Describe the process involved in producing a herbicide
resistant GM crop and why it is useful for the farmer
B1
Inheritance – Answer the Following
• Describe the process involved in producing a herbicide
resistant GM crop and why it is useful for the farmer
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Herbicide resistant gene cut out from one plant
Gene transferred to a crop plant
Crop can be sprayed with herbicide and be unaffected
So only weeds are killed
Reducing competition (for space/nutrients)
Thus increasing yields
Variation and Evolution – Answer the Following
• What is meant by variation, what causes is, and
describe the differences between continuous and
discontinuous variation.
B1
Variation and Evolution – Answer the Following
• What is meant by variation, what causes is, and
describe the differences between continuous and
discontinuous variation.
1. Variation – differences between individuals
2. Caused by environment or genetic causes (both needed)
3. Continuous – where an individual can be at any point along
a range of variation
4. Shown as a bell shaped curve of a (line) graph
5. Discontinuous – where an individual can only be at distinct
categories of variation
6. Shown as a bar graph
Variation and Evolution – Answer the Following
• Describe the differences between sexual and
asexual variation.
B1
Variation and Evolution – Answer the Following
• Describe the differences between sexual and
asexual variation.
1. Asexual has one parent whereas sexual has two
2. Asexual produces clones/genetically identical offspring
whereas sexual produces genetically similar/different
offspring
3. Asexual uses mitosis only whereas sexual requires meiosis
4. Asexual does not require gametes/sperm and egg/sex cells
whereas sexual does
Variation and Evolution – Answer the Following
• What is meant by ‘gene therapy’? Describe how it is
carried out in the case of cystic fibrosis and what its
limitations are.
B1
Variation and Evolution – Answer the Following
• What is meant by ‘gene therapy’? Describe how it is
carried out in the case of cystic fibrosis and what its
limitations are.
1. Involves inserting the normal version of a gene into
affected tissue
2. Faulty cystic fibrosis gene results in sticky mucus blocking
bronchioles
3. Caused by recessive allele
4. Normal gene is inserted into lung tissue using inhaler
Problems
5. Gene isn’t always expressed/switched on
6. Hard to target the right cells
7. Not a cure for the condition
Variation and Evolution – Answer the Following
• What is evolution and describe the stages of
natural selection which bring evolution about.
B1
Variation and Evolution – Answer the Following
• What is evolution and describe the stages of
natural selection which bring evolution about.
1. Evolution – idea that species change over time
Natural selection
2. Individuals within species show a wide range of variation
3. Due to differences in their genes
4. Those with advantageous characteristics more likely to
survive
5. And therefore reproduce
6. And therefore pass on the genes for those characteristics
to their offspring
7. Over time those genes become more common (whilst
disadvantageous genes become less common)
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• In what ways do plants respond to their
environment?
B1
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• In what ways do plants respond to their
environment?
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Respond in the way that they grow
Controlled by plant hormones
Gravitropism – response to gravity
Roots grow towards pull of gravity
Shoots grow away from pull of gravity
Phototropism – response to light
Shoot grow towards light
On order to photosynthesise
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• How does a person ensure that their blood
sugar level stays relatively constant?
B1
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• How does a person ensure that their blood
sugar level stays relatively constant?
When blood sugar/glucose level too high
1. Pancreas
2. Releases insulin (into blood)
3. Liver responds
4. By absorbing glucose and converting to (insoluble)
glycogen
5. For storage
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• What is diabetes and how can it be treated?
B1
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• What is diabetes and how can it be treated?
1. A condition in which blood glucose may rise to fatally high
level
2. Because body does not produce enough insulin (type 1)
3. Diagnosed by detecting glucose in urine
4. Treated by injecting insulin
5. And following low sugar/carbohydrate diet
6. Could also be treated by pancreatic transplant
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• Describe and explain how the body responds
when it gets to hot.
B1
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• Describe and explain how the body responds
when it gets to hot.
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Blood flows to the skin surface
So heat leaves body
Hairs lie flat
So no insulating air layer
Sweat is produced
As sweat evaporates it uses heat from the body
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• Describe and explain how the body responds
when it gets to cold.
B1
Response and Regulation – Answer the Following
• Describe and explain how the body responds
when it gets to cold.
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Blood stays away from the skin surface
So less heat leaves body
Hairs stand erect
So creating an insulating air layer
Shivering occurs
Which is an involuntary muscle contraction
That generates heat
Health – Answer the Following
• Explain why sugar and fat are components of
food that are a cause for concern.
B1
Health – Answer the Following
• Explain why sugar and fat are components of
food that are a cause for concern.
Sugar and Fast
1. Both high-energy foods so can lead to obesity
2. Obesity can lead to heart disease
Sugar
3. Remains on teeth and provides food for bacteria
4. Resulting in tooth decay
Fat
5. Animal fats form cholesterol in body
6. Which is deposited on the inside of blood vessels
7. And can lead to heart disease
Health – Answer the Following
• What are the causes of obesity and why is it a
problem?
B1
Health – Answer the Following
• What are the causes of obesity and why is it a
problem?
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Caused by an unhealthy diet
And lack of exercise
Increases risk of heart disease
And cancer
And joint problem
And type 2 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes controlled by tablets rather than insulin
injections
Health – Answer the Following
• Using alcohol as an example describe what is meant by
the word ‘drug’ and why they might be problematic.
B1
Health – Answer the Following
• Using alcohol as an example describe what is meant by
the word ‘drug’ and why they might be problematic.
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A drug is a substance which alters the way the body works
Alcohol increases reaction time/slows reactions
People may become addicted to/dependent on alcohol
Meaning the suffer withdrawal symptoms without it
Alcohol can cause long term damage (should include at
least one example from liver, circulatory or heart disease)
Health – Answer the Following
• What problems may arise in developing new medicinal
drugs and how might these be avoided?
B1
Health – Answer the Following
• What problems may arise in developing new medicinal
drugs and how might these be avoided?
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Drugs may have side affects
Side effects may not show up until lots of people use them
So lots of testing must be done
Some testing may involve testing on animals
Some object as they think it unethical