Transcript Document

Benefits of Plant Biotechnology
November 2002
Plant biotech 101:
• What is plant biotechnology?
• Products on the market
• Benefits of biotechnology
• Safety and regulation
2
Thomas Fairchild
3 What is plant biotechnology?
Fairchild’s mule
Fairchild’s mule gave birth to many
of today’s hybrid flowers
4 What is plant biotechnology?
“We have recently advanced our knowledge of
genetics to a point where we can manipulate life
in a way never intended by nature. We must
proceed with the utmost caution in the application
of this new-found knowledge.”
— Luther Burbank
5 What is plant biotechnology?
Burbank was a pioneer
in the development of
several hybrid plants in
the late 1800s and
early 1900s
– plums
– berries
– prunes
– peaches
– potatoes
6 What is plant biotechnology?
Selective breeding
led to higher-yielding
varieties.
7 What is plant biotechnology?
Teosinte
8 What is plant biotechnology?
Modern corn
Gregor Johann Mendel
9 What is plant biotechnology?
Traditional plant breeding
DNA is a strand of genes,
much like a strand of
pearls. Traditional plant
breeding combines many
genes at once.
Traditional donor
Commercial variety
New variety
(many genes are transferred)
=
X
(crosses)
Desired Gene
Desired gene
Plant biotechnology
Using plant biotechnology,
a single gene may be
added to the strand.
Desired gene
Commercial variety New variety
(only desired gene is transferred)
=
(transfers)
Desired gene
10 What is plant biotechnology?
Plant biotechnology definition:
A precise process in which
scientific techniques are
used to develop useful
and beneficial plants.
11 What is plant biotechnology?
“No conceptual distinction exists between genetic
modification of plants and microorganisms by
classical methods or by molecular techniques
that modify DNA and transfer genes.”
— National Research Council
12 What is plant biotechnology?
Products on the market
13
More than 50 biotech food products
have been approved for commercial
use in the United States
• Canola
• Soybeans
• Corn
• Squash
• Cotton
• Sugarbeets
• Papaya
• Sweet corn
• Potato
• Tomato
14 Products on the market
Four crops accounted for nearly all of
the global biotech crop area in 2001
63%
Soybeans
19%
Corn
13%
Cotton
Canola
5%
Source: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications
15 Products on the market
Four countries accounted for 99 percent*
of the global biotech crop area in 2001
United States
68%
22%
Argentina
Canada
China
6%
3%
*Australia, Bulgaria, Germany, Indonesia, Mexico, Romania, South Africa, Spain and
Uruguay accounted for the remaining 1 percent of biotech crop acres.
Source: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications
16 Products on the market
Global plantings of biotech crops
increased nearly 20 percent in 2001
60
Global Area of GM Crops
52.6
Million Hectars
50
44.2
40
39.9
30
27.8
20
10
1.7
11
0
1996
1997
1998
Source: International Service for the Acquisition of Agri-biotech Applications
17 Products on the market
1999
2000
2001
“Adoption rates for transgenic crops are unprecedented
and are the highest for any new technologies by
agricultural industry standards.”
— Clive James, Chair of
the International Service
for the Acquisition of
Agri-biotech Applications
18 Products on the market
Benefits of biotechnology
More food
Better food
Better for the environment
19
More food
Yield increase
Net economic
impact
Pesticide
reduction
Current cultivars
4 billion pounds
$1.5 billion
46 million pounds
Potential cultivars
10 billion pounds
$1 billion
117 million pounds
Total
14 billion pounds $2.5 billion
20 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
163 million pounds
More food
• Bt corn – 3.5 billion pound yield
increase and $125 million in
additional income
• Bt cotton – 185 million pound yield
increase and $102 million in
additional income
• Biotech soybeans – $1 billion
in additional income through
production cost savings
Source: National Center for Food and Agricultural Policy
21 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
Products in the pipeline
Agronomic benefits
• Oranges resistant
to citrus canker
• Disease-resistant
sweet potatoes
• Pest- and diseaseresistant cassava
• Disease-resistant
bananas
22 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
Agricultural yield increases are declining
Percentage per year
3
1967–1982
1982–1994
1995–2020
2
1
0
Developing countries
World
Developed countries
Source: C.S. Prakash, Center for Plant Biotechnology Research, Tuskegee University, Alabama
23 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
By 2025, there will be another
2 billion mouths to feed
— United Nations
Population Fund
24 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
Distribution of world population growth
to 2010
Former Soviet Union 0%
Europe 0%
North
America 5%
Asia 51%
Africa 35%
South America 8%
25 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
Distribution of world income growth
to 2010
Former Soviet Union 4%
Europe 24%
North
America 27%
Asia 32%
Africa 6%
South America 9%
26 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
Developed world
(EU, U.S., Japan)
– Population: 1 billion
– Income: $5,000+
More food
will be needed
to feed a
growing global
middle class
Developing world
(Asia, Latin America)
– Population: 4.2 billion
– Income: $400 $5,000
Impoverished areas
(Africa)
– Population: 800
million
– Income: <$400
27 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
Farmers will need to at least double
production over the next 25 years to
meet increased demand.
— Consultative Group
on International
Agricultural Research
28 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
Without an increase in farm productivity, an additional
4 billion acres of arable land will need to come under
the plow by 2050.
— C.S. Prakash, founder and
president of the nonprofit
AgBioWorld Foundation
29 Benefits of biotechnology – More food
Better food
30 Benefits of biotechnology – Better food
Products in the pipeline
Enhanced nutritional qualities
• Tomatoes enriched
with flavonols
• Soybean and canola
oils with higher levels
of vitamin E
• Vitamin-enriched rice
• Decaffeinated coffee
31 Benefits of biotechnology – Better food
Products in the pipeline
Enhanced nutritional qualities
“I think in the long term we will
have foods that are less hazardous
because biotechnology will
have eliminated or diminished
their allergenicity.”
— Steve Taylor, Ph.D.
Department of Food Science and Technology,
University of Nebraska
32 Benefits of biotechnology – Better food
Products in the pipeline
Functional foods
• Bananas to deliver
a hepatitis vaccine
• Apples to protect
against Respiratory
Syncytial virus
• Potatoes to protect
against cholera, E. coli
and Norwalk virus
33 Benefits of biotechnology – Better food
Better for the environment
“The results clearly show that
soil, air and water quality are
enhanced through the
responsible use of current
biotechnology-derived soybean,
corn and cotton crops.”
— Teresa Gruber, executive director
of the Council for Agricultural
Science and Technology (CAST)
34 Benefits of biotechnology – Environment
Conservation tillage improves
wildlife habitat, water quality
Nearly three-fourths
of no-till soybean
acres and 86 percent
of no-till cotton acres
were planted with
biotech varieties.
Source: Conservation Technology Information Center
35 Benefits of biotechnology – Environment
Better for the environment
“We have wildlife on the farm today
that my dad has never seen before,
and he’s over 90 years old.”
— Iowa farmer Roy Bardole
36 Benefits of biotechnology – Environment
Government Regulation
37
37
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• American Dietetic Association
• American Medical Association
• Institute of Food Technologists
• World Health Organization
39
“The College supports the use of biotechnology to
develop food crops that contribute to global food
security and enhance the safety and nutritional
value of the food supply.”
— American College of Nutrition
Statement on Crop Biotechnology
40
“There is no reason to suppose that the process of
food production through biotechnology leads to risks
of a different nature than those ... created by
conventional breeding.”
— Society of Toxicology
Statement on the Safety
of Foods Produced
Through Biotechnology
41
“Biotechnology experts believe that the current
regimen of tests has been adequate for ensuring
that GM foods marketed to consumers are as safe
as conventional foods.”
— General Accounting Office
42
“Indeed, the use of more precise technology
and the greater regulatory scrutiny probably
make them [biotech foods] even safer than
conventional plants and foods.”
— European Commission
research report
43
USDA report says
impact of Bt corn
on butterflies is
“negligible”
44
Increasing production on existing land
preserves forests, enhancing biodiversity
U.N. report says biodiversity
will be threatened on
72 percent of global land
area in 30 years.
45
Biotech foods are labeled when they
are significantly different from their
conventional counterparts
46
USDA Organic Seal program provides
consumers with choices
47
Hybrid wheat gave birth to agriculture and some
say civilization itself.
— Jacob Bronowski, author
The Ascent of Man
48
Plant biotechnology represents
the next leap forward
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Making progress
• India approves planting
of biotech cotton
• U.N. report says GMOs
could be “breakthrough technology
for developing countries”
• African scientists call biotech a “major
opportunity to enhance the production
of food crops”
50
Making progress
• “Biotech crops boost farm income,
yields” – Reuters
• “Biotechnology tastes sweeter and
sweeter” – Omaha World Herald
• “Biotech crops, an environmental ally”
– Akron Beacon Journal
• “Biotech food great for farmers, eaters”
– The Spokesman Review
• “Biotech crop report cites benefits for
food production, environment”
– Feedstuffs
• “Genetic crops could help reduce
pesticides” – UPI
• “Biotech holds great promise for beets”
– Grand Forks Herald
51 CBI
“We are increasingly encouraged that the advantages
of genetic engineering of plants and animals are
greater than the risks. ... We cannot agree with the
position of some groups that say it is against the will
of God to meddle with the genetic make-up of plants
and animals.”
— Bishop Elio Sgreccia,
vice president of the
Pontifical Academy for Life
52
“If they can give us a better
tomato, I’m for it.”
— Julia Child
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The more people know, the more they
support biotechnology
Percentage who support biotechnology to...
Develop new
varieties of
crops
Genetically
modify foods
Jul. ‘02
54 CBI
67%
51%
50%
32%
Heard some or a lot
Heard little or nothing
Council for Biotechnology Information
www.whybiotech.com
Helping improve people’s
understanding of the
products of agricultural
and food biotechnology.
55 CBI