Transcript Slide 1

Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• RED SLIDE: These are notes that are very
important and should be recorded in your
science journal.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Please use this red line
Please use this red line
-Please make notes legible and use indentations when
appropriate.
Please use this red line
- Please make notes legible and use indentations when
appropriate.
-Please make notes legible and use indentations
when appropriate.
-Example of indent.
-Please make notes legible and use indentations
when appropriate.
-Example of indent.
-Skip a line between topics
-Please make notes legible and use indentations
when appropriate.
-Example of indent.
-Skip a line between topics
-Don’t skip pages
-Please make notes legible and use indentations
when appropriate.
-Example of indent.
-Skip a line between topics
-Don’t skip pages
-Make visuals clear and well drawn.
-Please make notes legible and use indentations
when appropriate.
-Example of indent.
-Skip a line between topics
-Don’t skip pages
-Make visuals clear and well drawn.
-Please make notes legible and use indentations
when appropriate.
-Example of indent.
-Skip a line between topics
-Don’t skip pages
-Make visuals clear and well drawn. Please Label
Double Helix
Phosphate Backbone
Nitrogen Base
• RED SLIDE: These are notes that are very
important and should be recorded in your
science journal.
• BLACK SLIDE: Pay attention, follow
directions, complete projects as described
and answer required questions neatly.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Keep an eye out for “The-Owl” and raise
your hand as soon as you see him.
– He will be hiding somewhere in the slideshow
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Keep an eye out for “The-Owl” and raise
your hand as soon as you see him.
– He will be hiding somewhere in the slideshow
“Hoot, Hoot”
“Good Luck!”
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
• Part V of this unit will cover…
– Some common phenotypes
– Genetics and Vocabulary
– Gregor Mendel
– Genetic Basics
– Probability
– Punnett Squares
– Genetic Disorders
– Bioethics
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy

New Area of Focus: Genetics
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Please list three physical and behavioral
similarities you have with your parents or
siblings.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Is there anyone in this class who shares
similar genetic traits to you……? Ummm?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Can you do any of the following?
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Genetics Available Sheets
• Genetics Available Sheets
What is your number 1-50?
Does anyone share your number?
Go one step at a time from the
middle outward toward your genetic
number.
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
Example
• This unit has a lot of difficult vocabulary.
• This unit has a lot of difficult vocabulary.
– Learning and understanding the meaning of
these words is the key to success.
• Video Link! Genetics 101 Part I
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xlR6GkE6lg
o&feature=related
• Genetics Available Sheets
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:

Record these words
in your science
journal. Leave a line
for their definition.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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
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


Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
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Traits:
Heredity:
Purebred:
Genes:
Alleles:
Genotype:
Phenotype:
Homozygous:
Heterozygous:
Dominant Alleles:
Recessive Alleles:
Hybrids:
Probability:
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Student volunteers will be asked to do
some reading over the next set of slides.
• Student volunteers will be asked to do
some reading over the next set of slides.
• Student volunteers will be asked to do
some reading over the next set of slides.
“The definitions to the
important
vocabulary will be
highlighted in blue.”
• Gregor Mendel: The father of modern
Genetics.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• He counted his results and kept statistical
notes.
– Much like your science journal.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The year was 1851, a young priest from
Vienna studied mathematics and science
at the university.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The year was 1851, a young priest from
Vienna studied mathematics and science
at the university. Upon finishing, he went
back to priesthood and tended a garden
outside of the monastery.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The year was 1851, a young priest from
Vienna studied mathematics and science
at the university. Upon finishing, he went
back to priesthood and tended a garden
outside of the monastery.
Learn more about Gregor
Mendel at…
http://www.biography.com/peo
ple/gregor-mendel39282?page=1
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• He worked with pea plants and became
curious as to why some pea plants had
different characteristics or traits.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• He worked with pea plants and became
curious as to why some pea plants had
different characteristics or traits.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Video Link! Genetics 101 Part II SNP’s
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=51q6fsfPkJI
&feature=related
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The change in species can occur through selective
breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Does anyone know what this is?
– Hint, It has to do with selective breeding.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This is a device used to collect semen (sperm)
from prize animals for selective breeding.
– People pay big dollars for prize genes.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Selective Breeding: The intentional breeding of
organisms with desirable traits in an attempt to
produce offspring with similar desirable
characteristics or with improved traits.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Corn 6,000 to 10,000 years ago looked much
different than it does today.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Corn 6,000 to 10,000 years ago looked much
different than it does today.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Corn 6,000 to 10,000 years ago looked much
different than it does today.
– By breeding the best corn species of a crop together over
thousands of years, the edible part has become much
larger.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Segregation: Separation of genes into
different gametes during meiosis
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Segregation: Separation of genes into
different gametes during meiosis
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Segregation: Separation of genes into
different gametes during meiosis
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Segregation: Separation of genes into
different gametes during meiosis
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Segregation: Separation of genes into
different gametes during meiosis
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Segregation: Separation of genes into
different gametes during meiosis
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Mendel seemed to notice that pea plants
tended to pass traits from parents to
offspring, which is called heredity.
Segregation: Separation of genes into
different gametes during meiosis
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
Which one will fertilize?
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
Which will fertilize?
Which will fertilize?
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Law of segregation (Heredity), states that
allele pairs separate or segregate during
gamete formation, and randomly unite
at fertilization.
– A gene can exist in more than one form.
– Organisms inherit two alleles for each trait.
– When gametes are produced (by meiosis), allele
pairs separate leaving each cell with a single
allele for each trait.
– When the two alleles of a pair are different, one
is dominant and the other is recessive.
• Mendel started doing experiments with
purebred plants, or plants that always
produce offspring with the same trait as
the parent.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Mendel started doing experiments with
purebred plants, or plants that always
produce offspring with the same trait as
the parent.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• For example, short pea plants always
produce short offspring. Mendel then
decided to cross short pea plants with tall
pea plants.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• For example, short pea plants always
produce short offspring. Mendel then
decided to cross short pea plants with tall
pea plants.
Tall
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• For example, short pea plants always
produce short offspring. Mendel then
decided to cross short pea plants with tall
pea plants.
Tall
Short
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• For example, short pea plants always
produce short offspring. Mendel then
decided to cross short pea plants with tall
pea plants.
Tall
Short
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed tall and short?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Half tall, and half short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
“What the
heck is
going on
here?”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This confused Mendel. He then decided to
breed all of these tall plants.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This confused Mendel. He then decided to
breed all of these tall plants.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This confused Mendel. He then decided to
breed all of these tall plants.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What do you think Mendel got when he
breed all of those tall offspring?
A.) Medium sized plants.
B.) Most tall and some short.
C.) All Short
D.) All Tall
E.) They won’t germinate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
“Wait a minute,
the information
for the small
plants was
hidden in the all
tall generation”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• In the next F2 generation, ¼ of the pea
plants were short, ¾ were tall.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The shortness was hidden (not gone) the
time he bred the tall and short and got all tall.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• An organisms phenotype is its physical
appearance or its visible traits.
• An organisms phenotype is its physical
appearance or its visible traits.
• What are some of your phenotypes?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What are some of your phenotypes?
PTC?
“Hey”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Video Link! Genetics 101 Part IV Phenotypes
– http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jHWJqzlHl3w
• An organisms genotype is its genetic
makeup, or allele combinations
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• An organisms genotype is its genetic
makeup, or allele combinations
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Learn more about genotype and
phenotype and the flow of information
at…
http://www.brooklyn.cuny.edu/bc/ahp/B
ioInfo/SD.Geno.HP.html
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• DNA has the information for our cells to
make proteins.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• A recessive allele is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it. A hybrid has
two different alleles
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
“That’s it, the
small pea
plants were
recessive and
didn’t appear
because the tall
were dominant”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
“Glad I didn’t
Just get
frustrated
and quit.”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
•
TT = Two dominant
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
•
TT = Two dominant
•
tt = Two recessive
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
•
TT = Two dominant
•
tt = Two recessive
•
Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
•
TT = Two dominant
•
tt = Two recessive
•
Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
•
TT = Two dominant
•
tt = Two recessive
•
Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
•
TT = Two dominant
•
tt = Two recessive
•
Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• T = Dominant
• t = Recessive
•
TT = Two dominant
•
tt = Two recessive
•
Tt = One dominant, one recessive
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or
visible traits.
– C.) Factors that control traits.
– D.) When the female contributes one factor,
while the male contributes the other.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or
visible traits.
– C.) Factors that control traits.
– D.) When the female contributes one factor,
while the male contributes the other.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or
visible traits.
– C.) Factors that control traits.
– D.) When the female contributes one factor,
while the male contributes the other.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or
visible traits.
– C.) Factors that control traits.
– D.) When the female contributes one factor,
while the male contributes the other.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or
visible traits.
– C.) Factors that control traits.
– D.) When the female contributes one factor,
while the male contributes the other.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or
visible traits.
– C.) Factors that control traits.
– D.) When the female contributes one factor,
while the male contributes the other.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes a gene?
– A.) Allele that is covered up when the
dominant allele is with it.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or
visible traits.
– C.) Factors that control traits.
– D.) When the female contributes one factor,
while the male contributes the other.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the male contributes the other.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) Factors that control traits.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the male contributes the other.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) Factors that control traits.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the male contributes the other.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) Factors that control traits.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the male contributes the other.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) Factors that control traits.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the male contributes the other.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) Factors that control traits.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the male contributes the other.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) Factors that control traits.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the male contributes the other.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) Factors that control traits.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes heredity?
– A.) When the female contributes one factor, while
the male contributes the other.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) Factors that control traits.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review. Answer is…
• Which letter below best describes Mendel’s
Law of Segregation?
– A.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– B.) When allele pairs separate during gamete
formation, and randomly unite at fertilization.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) An organisms genetic makeup, or allele
combinations.
– E.) Allele that is covered up when the dominant
allele is with it.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) Alleles do not exist in nature.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) Alleles do not exist in nature.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) Alleles do not exist in nature.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) Alleles do not exist in nature.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) Alleles do not exist in nature.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) Alleles do not exist in nature.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) Alleles do not exist in nature.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which letter below best describes an allele?
– A.) An organisms genetic make up.
– B.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– C.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) Alleles do not exist in nature.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Vocabulary Review.
• Which two letters below best describes an
organisms phenotype and genotype?
– A.) When traits are passed from parents to
offspring.
– B.) An organisms genetic make up.
– C.) An organisms physical appearance or visible
traits.
– D.) The different forms of a gene.
– E.) When an organism cannot pass on genetic
information.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• You can now complete page 9 of your
bundled homework.
Copyright © 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square: A diagram that is used to
predict the outcome of a particular cross
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square: A diagram that is used to
predict the outcome of a particular cross
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square: A diagram that is used to
predict the outcome of a particular cross
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Video Link! Khan Academy “Punnett
Squares.” (Advanced)
– http://www.khanacademy.org/video/punnettsquare-fun?playlist=Biology
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Genetics Available Sheets
• When a man and women decide to have a
child, who determines the gender?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Use the Punnett Square below to help you.
XX=Female XY=Male
Who
determines
gender?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Answer! The male, he is the only one who
carries the Y chromosome.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Answer! The male, he is the only one who
carries the Y chromosome. If he gives the
X it is female, if he gives the Y it is male.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Answer! The male, he is the only one who
carries the Y chromosome. If he gives the
X it is female, if he gives the Y it is male.
The woman is XX and can only give the X.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• In some cultures, women are harassed
and looked down upon when they give
birth to a daughter.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• In some cultures, women are harassed
and looked down upon when they give
birth to a daughter.
“I’m too ignorant
to understand
the science but
very quick to be
abusive.”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes
(46 total)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Really interesting NPR (Radio Lab) Science
Friday. (Optional) Adult Content
– Genghis Khan, the Y chromosome and his 16
million descendants.
• http://www.radiolab.org/2007/sep/10/genghis-khan/
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Now, the probability that if you flip a coin
four times, is that 50% will land on heads,
and 50% will land tails.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Now, the probability that if you flip a coin
four times, is that 50% will land on heads,
and 50% will land tails.
– Let’s see if our results match probability?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Genetics deals heavily with probability, or
the likelihood that a particular event will
occur.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Genetics deals heavily with probability, or
the likelihood that a particular event will
occur.
Learn more about probability at…
http://www.mathsisfun.com/data/probability.html
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• What is the probability that a dice will land
on 6?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Answer: The odds and 1-6 or 16.67%
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Answer: The odds and 1-6 or 16.67%
• Anyone want to bet against me that I roll a
6? I only get one chance? Are the odds
good? What do you bet if you take me on?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• And the winner is…
• And the winner is…
• People who look at this machine do not
understand probability.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This machine keeps track of the colors
and numbers on roulette.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This machine keeps track of the colors
and numbers on roulette.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• This machine keeps track of the colors
and numbers on roulette.
– “Hey Jimmy, the history board shows that red
hasn’t come up in a while, it’s due.”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• History doesn’t determine probability in
mathematics. If the probability is 50/50, it
will always be 50/50. Black will be due
50% of the time.
“Dude” “Black is hot right
now.” “Bet Black.”
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Roulette isn’t a 50/50 chance of winning
because of the two green slots is where
the house wins if you didn’t place your bet
on green.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Roulette isn’t a 50/50 chance of winning
because of the two green slots is where
the house wins if you didn’t place your bet
on green. 48% Chance you will win, 52%
you will lose.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
“Jeepers!” “Probability
showed I would lose
and I did.” “How did
this happen?”
• Activity! Visit a virtual coin flip engine
online.
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
10 times?
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
5000 times.
– What are the odds for flipping a coin millions
of times?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Activity! Visit a virtual coin flip engine
online.
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
10 times? 5/10
50/50
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
5000 times.
– What are the odds for flipping a coin millions
of times?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Activity! Visit a virtual coin flip engine
online.
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
10 times? 5/10
50/50
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
5000 times. 2500/5000
50/50
– What are the odds for flipping a coin millions
of times?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Activity! Visit a virtual coin flip engine
online.
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
10 times? 5/10
50/50
– What are the odds of flipping heads on a coin
5000 times. 2500/5000
50/50
– What are the odds for flipping a coin millions
of times? 500,000/1,000,000 50/50
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• The more numbers you get, the true
probability becomes more apparent or
accurate.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous-
Has two identical
alleles TT or tt
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous-
Has two identical
alleles TT or tt
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous-
Has two identical
alleles TT or tt
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous Dominant: All dominant /
Capital Letters.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous Dominant: All dominant /
Capital Letters.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous Dominant: All dominant /
Capital Letters.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Homozygous Dominant: All dominant /
Capital Letters.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Heterozygous: Has two different alleles Tt,
One capital, and one lower case.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Heterozygous: Has two different alleles Tt,
One capital, and one lower case.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Heterozygous: Has two different alleles Tt,
One capital, and one lower case.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Which boxes are homozygous recessive?
1 2
34
• Which boxes are homozygous recessive?
1 2
34
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• In asexual reproduction, the offspring are
identical to the parent.
• Genetics Available Sheets
• Quiz Wiz 1-10 Answers will follow each
questions.
– Word Bank: Homozygous Dominant,
Homozygous recessive, heterozygous.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Bonus – Name the Movie
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Bonus: The Princess Bride,
• Rob Reiner (1987)
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one Punnett Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one Punnett Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Let’s try one
Punnett
Square.
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Vampwolf?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Vampwolf?
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Vampwolf?
Werewolf
Human
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Vampwolf?
Werewolf
Human
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Vampwolf?
Werewolf
Human
Vampire
Human
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Vampwolf?
Werewolf
Human
Vampire
Human
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
• V = Vampire
• h = Human
Vampwolf?
Werewolf
Human
Vampire
Human
Human
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Punnett Square “Twilight”
– What would the offspring of
Jacob and Renesmee be…?
• W = Werewolf
“Oh the possibilities!”
• V = Vampire
“I hope they make
• H = Human
more books…”
Vampwolf?
Werewolf
Human
Vampire
Human
Human
Copyright© 2010 Ryan P. Murphy
• Genetics PowerPoint Review Game
• This PowerPoint is one small part of my
DNA and Genetics Unit.
• This unit includes…
– A five part 3,000 slide PowerPoint roadmap.
– 14 page bundled homework package,
answer keys, lesson notes, rubrics, materials
list, guide, and much more.
– PowerPoint Review Game, games,
flashcards, crosswords, and more.
– http://sciencepowerpoint.com/DNA_Genetics
_Unit.html
• “AYE” Advance Your Exploration ELA and
Literacy Opportunity Worksheet
– Visit some of the many provided links or..
– Articles can be found at (w/ membership to
NABT and NSTA)
• http://www.nabt.org/websites/institution/index.php?p=
1
• http://learningcenter.nsta.org/browse_journals.aspx?j
Please visit at least one of the
ournal=tst
“learn more” educational links
provided in this unit and
complete this worksheet.
• “AYE” Advance Your Exploration ELA and
Literacy Opportunity Worksheet
– Visit some of the many provided links or..
– Articles can be found at (w/ membership to NABT
and NSTA)
• http://www.nabt.org/websites/institution/index.php?p=1
• http://learningcenter.nsta.org/browse_journals.aspx?jo
urnal=tst
Areas of Focus within The DNA and Genetics Unit:
DNA, DNA Extraction, Structure of DNA, Discovery of the Double
Helix, Rosalind Franklin, Nucleotides, RNA, Cell Division, Mitosis,
Phases of Mitosis, Chromosomes, Cancer, Ways to Avoid Cancer,
What is Inside a Cigarette?, Facts about Smoking?, Anti-Smoking
Ads, Meiosis, Phases in Meiosis, Mendelian Genetics, Gregor
Mendel, Punnett Squares, Probability, Dihybrid Cross, Codominance,
Bio-Ethics, Stem Cell Debate, Cloning Debate
Full
Unit found at…
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/DNA_Genetics_Unit.html
• Please visit the links below to learn more
about each of the units in this curriculum
– These units take me about four years to complete
with my students in grades 5-10.
Earth Science Units
Extended Tour Link and Curriculum Guide
Geology Topics Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Geology_Unit.html
Astronomy Topics Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Astronomy_Unit.html
Weather and Climate Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Weather_Climate_Unit.html
Soil Science, Weathering, More
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Soil_and_Glaciers_Unit.html
Water Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Water_Molecule_Unit.html
Rivers Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/River_and_Water_Quality_Unit.html
= Easier

5th – 7th grade
= More Difficult
6th – 8th grade
= Most Difficult
8th – 10th grade
Physical Science Units
Extended Tour Link and Curriculum Guide
Science Skills Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Science_Introduction_Lab_Safety_Metric_Methods.
html
Motion and Machines Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Newtons_Laws_Motion_Machines_Unit.html
Matter, Energy, Envs. Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Energy_Topics_Unit.html
Atoms and Periodic Table Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Atoms_Periodic_Table_of_Elements_Unit.html
Life Science Units
Extended Tour Link and Curriculum Guide
Human Body / Health Topics
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Human_Body_Systems_and_Health_Topics_Unit.html
DNA and Genetics Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/DNA_Genetics_Unit.html
Cell Biology Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Cellular_Biology_Unit.html
Infectious Diseases Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Infectious_Diseases_Unit.html
Taxonomy and Classification Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Taxonomy_Classification_Unit.html
Evolution / Natural Selection Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Evolution_Natural_Selection_Unit.html
Botany Topics Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Plant_Botany_Unit.html
Ecology Feeding Levels Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Ecology_Feeding_Levels_Unit.htm
Ecology Interactions Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Ecology_Interactions_Unit.html
Ecology Abiotic Factors Unit
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/Ecology_Abiotic_Factors_Unit.html
• Thank you for your time and interest in this
curriculum tour. Please visit the welcome / guide on
how a unit works and link to the many unit previews
to see the PowerPoint slideshows, bundled
homework, review games, unit notes, and much
more. Thank you for your interest and please feel
free to contact me with any questions you may have.
Best wishes.
• Sincerely,
• Ryan Murphy M.Ed
• [email protected]
• The entire four year curriculum can be found at...
http://sciencepowerpoint.com/ Please feel free to
contact me with any questions you may have.
Thank you for your interest in this curriculum.
Sincerely,
Ryan Murphy M.Ed
[email protected]