Transcript mb_ch13

Chapter 13
Gene Technology
Table of Contents
Section 1 DNA Technology
Section 2 The Human Genome Project
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Objectives
• Explain the significance of noncoding DNA to DNA
identification.
• Describe four major steps commonly used in DNA
identification.
• Explain the use of restriction enzymes, cloning
vectors, and probes in making recombinant DNA.
• Summarize several applications of DNA
identification.
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
DNA Identification
• The repeating sequences in noncoding DNA vary
between individuals and thus can be used to identify
an individual.
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Steps in DNA Identification
• Copying DNA: Polymerase Chain Reaction
– To identify a DNA sample, scientists isolate the
DNA and copy it using the polymerase chain
reaction (PCR).
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Polymerase Chain Reaction
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Visual Concept
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Steps in DNA Identification, continued
• Cutting DNA: Restriction Enzyme
– The DNA is then cut into fragments using
restriction enzymes.
– Restriction enzymes recognize and cut specific
nucleotide sequences.
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Restriction Enzymes Cut DNA
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Action of Restriction Enzymes
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Visual Concept
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Steps in DNA Identification, continued
• Sorting DNA by Size: Gel Electrophoresis
– The fragments are separated by size using gel
electrophoresis.
– The resulting pattern of bands is called a DNA
fingerprint.
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Gel Electrophoresis
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
DNA Fingerprint
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Visual Concept
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Recombinant DNA
• Cloning Vectors
– Researchers use restriction enzymes to insert
DNA fragments into vectors.
– The resulting DNA from two different organisms is
called recombinant DNA.
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Cloning Vectors and Plasmids
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Visual Concept
Chapter 13
Section 1 DNA Technology
Applications For DNA Technology
• DNA technology provides the tools to manipulate
DNA molecules for practical purposes, such as
forensic investigation to determine the identity of a
criminal.
Chapter 13
Section 2 The Human
Genome Project
Objectives
• Discuss two major goals of the Human Genome Project.
• Summarize important insights gained from the Human Genome
Project.
• Explain why animal model species are useful to study genes.
• State how information from the Human Genome Project will be
applied to future projects.
• Relate bioinformatics, proteomics, and microarrays to the
Human Genome Project.
Chapter 13
Section 2 The Human
Genome Project
Mapping The Human Genome
• The goals of the Human Genome Project were to
determine the nucleotide sequence of the entire
human genome and map the location of every gene
on each chromosome.
• This information will advance the diagnosis,
treatment, and prevention of human genetic
disorders.
Chapter 13
Section 2 The Human
Genome Project
Mapping The Human Genome, continued
• Important Insights
– The Human Genome Project yielded important
information about human genes and proteins.
– For example, there are far fewer protein-encoding
human genes than once believed but far more
proteins because of the complex way they are
encoded.
Chapter 13
Section 2 The Human
Genome Project
Mapping The Human Genome, continued
• Model Species
– The Human Genome Project included sequencing
the genes of many model species to provide
insights into gene function.
Chapter 13
Section 2 The Human
Genome Project
Mapping The Human Genome, continued
• Applications
– Information from the Human Genome Project has
been applied to medical, commercial, and
scientific purposes.
Chapter 13
Section 2 The Human
Genome Project
The Future of Genomics
• Bioinformatics
– Bioinformatics uses computers to catalog and
analyze genomes.
Chapter 13
Section 2 The Human
Genome Project
The Future of Genomics, continued
• Proteomics
– Proteomics studies the identities, structures,
interactions, and abundances of an organism’s
proteins.
Chapter 13
Section 2 The Human
Genome Project
The Future of Genomics, continued
• Microarrays
– DNA microarrays, two-dimensional arrangements
of cloned genes, allow researchers to compare
specific genes such as those that cause cancer.
Chapter 13
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Objectives
• Discuss the uses of genetic engineering in medicine.
• Summarize how gene therapy is being used to try to cure
genetic disorders.
• Discuss cloning and its technology.
• Describe two ways genetic engineering has been used to
improve crop plants.
• Discuss environmental and ethical issues associated with
genetic engineering.
Chapter 13
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Medical Applications
• Genetic engineering is being used to provide
therapies for certain genetic diseases.
Chapter 13
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Medical Applications, continued
• Gene Therapy
– Gene therapy refers to treating genetic disorders
by correcting a defect in a gene or by providing a
normal form of a gene.
– Researchers hope that gene therapy can be used
to cure genetic disorders in the future.
Chapter 13
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Medical Applications, continued
• Cloning
– In cloning by nuclear transfer, a nucleus from a
body cell of one individual is introduced into an
egg cell (without its nucleus) from another
individual.
– An organism identical to the nucleus donor results.
Chapter 13
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Cloning
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Visual Concept
Chapter 13
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Genetically Engineered Vaccines
Chapter 13
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Agricultural Applications
• Genetic engineering is used to produce diseaseresistant, pest-resistant, and herbicide-resistant crops
in an effort to improve the yields and nutrition of the
human food supply.
Chapter 13
Genetic
Engineering
and Cotton
Plants
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Chapter 13
Section 3 Genetic Engineering
Ethical Issues
• Some people fear that the release of genetically
modified organisms would pose an environmental
risk.
• Many safety, environmental, and ethical issues
involved in genetic engineering have not been
resolved.