Carbon compounds.

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Transcript Carbon compounds.

Organic compounds
 One
carbon atom can make 4 possible
covalent bonds.
 Living molecules are made from
molecules that contain carbon.
 Carbon bonds can form long chains that
can be unlimited in length.
 Carbon is the most versatile element.
 Groups
of organic molecules that contain
carbon:
• Carbohydrates
• Lipids
• Proteins
• Nucleic
acids
 the
small subunits that ultimately link
together to form larger molecules are
called monomers. Mono - one
 When a bunch of monomers join together
into a much larger molecule, they form
a polymer. Poly- many
 ‘giant
molecules’
 Comprised of monomers that like together
through polymerization.
 ‘many small subunits make one large unit’
 We consume the macromolecule, but it is later
broken down into these smaller monomers to
be used in out body.
 Carbohydrates
are an important source
of energy for cells and provide a means
of transporting and storing that energy.
 They are also a structural support.
 Carbohydrates
= energy for cells.
 Carbohydrates
are made of carbon (C),
hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), or CHO, in
an approximate ratio of 1:2:1.
 All
sugars are carbohydrates. Another
word for sugar is saccharide.
 Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
 1:2:1
ratio
 Main source of energy
 C6H12O6
monomer
 Glucose, C6H12O6
 Galactose, C6H12O6
 Fructose, C6H12O6
 When
2 monosaccharides join together,
they form a disaccharide through
dehydration synthesis.




Monomer- monosaccharide “simple sugars”
sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructose
lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose
maltose — product of starch digestion = glucose +
glucose
 What
is the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to
oxygen in a carbohydrate molecule.
 Why do we need carbohydrates?
 What is dehydration synthesis?
 Fats, oils, waxes, detergents
 Insoluble
in water
 Made of mostly carbon and hydrogen
 Lipids
are hydrophobic – water fearing!!
 Lipids
are used for long term energy
storage.
 Create structure of the cell membrane.
 Transmit information
 Warmth and protection
 Glycerol
molecule and 3 fatty acids
 Butter, oil, lard
 Store almost twice as many calories as
carbohydrates, more energy!
Saturated
Unsaturated
Animal fats (meat, eggs, dairy
products)
Oils ( olive oil, peanut oil)
no double bonds; saturated with
hydrogen.
Contains double bond.
Solid at room temperature
Liquid at room temperature
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature
=endscreen&NR=1&v=HgH6C1itI08
 Contain: nitrogen,(N)
carbon (C),
hydrogen (H), oxygen (O)
 Monomer: amino acids
• Amino group (NH2) on one end and a carboxyl
group (COOH) on the other end.
• What distinguishes amino acids is the R group.
 Amino
acids are joined together in
proteins by peptide bonds.
 A peptide bond forms between the
carboxyl group of one amino acid and
the amino group of the adjacent amino
acid.
 Each
protein has a specific role.
 Transport
Hormonal
 Storage
Form muscle/bone
 Enzymes
Fight disease
 Proteins
are chains of amino acids folded up
into complex arrangements.
 First level of organization – amino acids in a
protein chain held together by peptide
bonds.
 Second level of organization – the chain is
twisted or folded. (helix or sheet)
 Third level- the chains themselves are folded
to make a 3D structure.
 Fourth level- 3D structure of multiple protein
subunits.
 https://
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 Contain
Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O),
Nitrogen (N), Carbon (C), and
Phosphorus (P).
 Monomer- nucleotide
• 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base.
• Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic
information.
 DNA and RNA