carbon atom can make 4 possible
Living molecules are made from
molecules that contain carbon.
Carbon bonds can form long chains that
can be unlimited in length.
Carbon is the most versatile element.
of organic molecules that contain
small subunits that ultimately link
together to form larger molecules are
called monomers. Mono - one
When a bunch of monomers join together
into a much larger molecule, they form
a polymer. Poly- many
Comprised of monomers that like together
‘many small subunits make one large unit’
We consume the macromolecule, but it is later
broken down into these smaller monomers to
be used in out body.
are an important source
of energy for cells and provide a means
of transporting and storing that energy.
They are also a structural support.
= energy for cells.
are made of carbon (C),
hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O), or CHO, in
an approximate ratio of 1:2:1.
sugars are carbohydrates. Another
word for sugar is saccharide.
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
Main source of energy
2 monosaccharides join together,
they form a disaccharide through
Monomer- monosaccharide “simple sugars”
sucrose — common table sugar = glucose + fructose
lactose — major sugar in milk = glucose + galactose
maltose — product of starch digestion = glucose +
is the ratio of carbon to hydrogen to
oxygen in a carbohydrate molecule.
Why do we need carbohydrates?
What is dehydration synthesis?
Fats, oils, waxes, detergents
Made of mostly carbon and hydrogen
are hydrophobic – water fearing!!
are used for long term energy
Create structure of the cell membrane.
Warmth and protection
molecule and 3 fatty acids
Butter, oil, lard
Store almost twice as many calories as
carbohydrates, more energy!
Animal fats (meat, eggs, dairy
Oils ( olive oil, peanut oil)
no double bonds; saturated with
Contains double bond.
Solid at room temperature
Liquid at room temperature
hydrogen (H), oxygen (O)
Monomer: amino acids
• Amino group (NH2) on one end and a carboxyl
group (COOH) on the other end.
• What distinguishes amino acids is the R group.
acids are joined together in
proteins by peptide bonds.
A peptide bond forms between the
carboxyl group of one amino acid and
the amino group of the adjacent amino
protein has a specific role.
are chains of amino acids folded up
into complex arrangements.
First level of organization – amino acids in a
protein chain held together by peptide
Second level of organization – the chain is
twisted or folded. (helix or sheet)
Third level- the chains themselves are folded
to make a 3D structure.
Fourth level- 3D structure of multiple protein
Hydrogen (H), Oxygen (O),
Nitrogen (N), Carbon (C), and
• 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, nitrogen base.
• Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic
DNA and RNA