Unit 4 * Development through the Life Stages

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Transcript Unit 4 * Development through the Life Stages

P1, Explain the principle psychological perspectives of nature nurture
D1. Analyse psychological perspectives in relation to nature/nurture
Born or brought up?
Steven Gerrard England
captain and Liverpool player
Tracey Connolly – Baby P’s
mother. Born bad?
James Arthur Xfactor winner 2013
Nature versus nurture debate
The nature versus nurture debate focuses on the argument on whether:
We are born the way we are i.e. People are
born to have an eating disorder.
The way we are brought up and our surroundings make
us the way we are e.g. People see thin models on TV in
magazines and they want to imitate them.
Nature – genetic and biological influences
Nurture – social, economic and
environmental issues
You… how do you live?
We all live in different environments. Nobody can claim that their
life has been the same as yours. You might be wealthy or poor, an
A-listed super star or an anonymous face in a city of millions.
Your genes make you unique, but so does your life. It is different
from every other human life on earth.
Different beginnings
You may have had quite a different
nine months in the womb compared
to that of your brother or sister.
…and once you are born then just
about anything can happen. And
almost everything that occurs during
your childhood and adolescence
could be having an impact on your
health, your career and the
relationships you are forming today.
Determinism is the belief that your future is fixed
or determined either by what you have
genetically inherited or by your social environment
and experience.
This word, this specialist vocabulary needs to be in
your course work. Learning new vocabulary is
necessary for you to write up your course work.
Example in practice;
Leijla is 65 and is unable
to walk very far.
A health issue…..
One of the nurses who work with her says…. ‘These people bring it
on themselves, I bet she is, or was a smoker’
The second nurse says….. ‘I don’t think it’s that at all because her
genes will have caused her to be like this.
Both the nurses statements are determinists…. ..the ‘cause’
Choice and
The alternative to determinism is the belief that people can take
control of their own lives through the choices they make (free will).
Some people believe that everything is fixed by nature or nurture or
that everything is a matter of choice,
However, you must take into consideration
that the human life course involves an
interaction of nature, nurture and the
decisions and choices that people make.
Example in practice;
Genetic inheritance and biology
Genetic inheritance and biology
Individual reaction and
To smoke or
not to
Your environment includes cigarettes; family
and friends smoke around you.
Your genetic inheritance means your more
likely to have an addiction….. …but then you
have the free will to choose to do so
Biological programming
It is argued that our genes can
‘programme’ the amino acids
which influence our body cells….
Genes provide the instructions for structuring amino acids which in
turn influence the proteins within our body cells thus programming
chemical basis of our biology (confused??? I’ll explain)
However, human development and behaviour are not
‘programmed’ by genes, although, development may be
influenced by genes, for example, addiction….
Biological programming
Our body shape, size as well as
our behaviour depend on the
interaction of our biology with
broader environment.
A human being is the result of
the interaction of genes
(biological programming) and
the environmental influences
they are exposed to.
Can you see the importance of
psychology; psychological influences,
when dealing with service users
a) In a health care setting? (P2)
b) In a social care setting? (P3)
Maturation theory
Some aspects of development such as the ability to speak a first
language are thought to be due to an inbuilt genetic process – it’s
innate. An instruction in the gene to learn to communicate.
Studies have shown babies only hours old are able to differentiate
between sounds from their native language and a foreign
language, scientists have discovered. The study indicates that
babies begin absorbing language while still in the womb, earlier
than previously thought…. ..nature o/and nurture…..
Children naturally become interested in
sounds and signs that they see around
them and the ability to speak unfolds.
Pre-programme to learn in early development
Maturation theory
The impact of the environment on this ability is crucial as
the learned language or communication method is the
one used within the environment:• Does the baby use a dummy?
• Does the baby only have a primary carer only?
• Is the atmosphere loud, fraught, stressed, aggressive?
• Has the child moved into a foster home?
Thus the environment always interacts with a person’s
genetic inheritance
In your course work, you need
P1. Explain the principle psychological perspectives
So, in general you need to demonstrate your understanding
EXPLAIN (and not just describe), the nature nurture debate.
This will form part of your introduction to Unit 7 course work…..
You will then next learn about the biological perspectives
[nature]and the research that supports different theories.
You will continue on to explaining these in more detail.
D1. Analyse psychological perspectives
in relation to nature/nurture