European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300

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Transcript European Renaissance and Reformation, 1300

European
Renaissance and
Reformation,
1300-1600
Chapter 1 Section 1
Italy: Birthplace of the
Renaissance
Preview: During the Middle
Ages there were times of war
and plague. People wanted to
celebrate life and the human
spirit. They began to question
institutions of the Middle Ages
that hadn’t prevented war or
relieved suffering. This
included questioning the
Catholic Church.
I. Italy’s Advantages
A. Renaissance (1300-1600)
• 1. Creativity in art, word and thought
• 2. Means “rebirth”
• 3. Revival of art and learning from
classical Greece and Rome
•
• 4. Led to innovations in art and
literature and new values such as
the importance of the individual
• 5. Spread from northern Italy to
the rest of Europe
B. Italy’s Advantages
1. City states and towns – areas where
ideas were exchanged
a. Plague killed about 60%
b. Those remaining could ask for higher
wages
c. Merchants pursued art
2. Wealthy merchant class
a. Merchants dominated politics
b. Did not inherit social rank like
nobles – made it by wits
c. Ex. – Medici family in Florence
3. Influence of Greece and Rome
a. Scholars wanted to return to learning
of Greeks and Romans
b. Artists drew inspiration from Roman
ruins
c. Studied ancient Latin manuscripts
d. Preserved Greek manuscripts in war
times
II. Classical and Worldly Values
A. Classics lead to humanism
1. Humanism – intellectual movement
that focused on human potential and
achievements
2. Scholars studied classical texts to
review Greek values rather than how
they applied to Christianity
3. Influenced artists and architects
4. Led to creation of the study of the
humanities – ex. history. literature and
philosophy
B. Worldly Pleasures
1. Past – demonstrate piety
(faithfulness) by wearing rough clothes
and eating plain foods
2. Renaissance – okay to enjoy life
without offending God
3. Secular – (worldly) – people
concerned more with the present
C. Patrons of the Arts
1. Patrons – supporters of the arts and
artists
2. Many were supported by leaders of
the Catholic Church
3. Merchants and wealthy families were
also patrons
4. Donating art to churches or cities
established importance
D. Renaissance Man
1. Idea that all educated people should
create art
2. Idea that all should be well-rounded –
“Renaissance Man”
3. Ex. B. Castiglione – “The Courtier” –
taught how to become this
E. Renaissance Woman
1. Upper class women should know the
classics and be charming
2. Should not seek fame but should
inspire art
3. Some exceptions – Isabella D’Este,
Catherine de Medici
III. Renaissance Revolutionizes Art
A. Painting and Sculpture
1. Styles changed – began use of perspective (3D on
flat canvas)
2. Portrayed religious and secular subjects as they
saw them – realistic style
3. Painted individuals and showed their feelings
and showed the human body realistically
4. Ex. – Leonardo da Vinci, Raphael Sanzio,
Michelangelo, Donatello, Sofonisba Anguissola,
Artemisia Gentileschi
B. Renaissance Literature
1. Changes in style
a. Use of vernacular (native language)
instead of Latin
b. Ex. Dante – wrote in Italian
c. Wrote for self-expression
d. Wrote about individuality of subjects
2. Francesco Petrarch
a. “Father of Ren. Humanism”
b. Poet – Italian and Latin
c. Sonnets – “Laura”
3. Giovanni Boccaccio
a. The “Decameron”
b. Tragic and comic view of life
4. Niccolo Machiavelli
a. “The Prince”
b. Political guidebook
c. Real world of power and politics do
whatever is necessary while appearing
as honest and trustworthy
5. Vittoria Colonna
a. Female writer/poet
b. In touch with Michelangelo and
helped Castiglione publish
Chapter 1 Section 2
The Northern Renaissance
Preview: By the late 1400s, the works of
da Vinci, Michelangelo, Raphael and
others spread to areas of Northern
Europe, including England, France,
Germany, and Flanders (today part of
France and the Netherlands.)
I. The Northern Renaissance Begins
A. After the plague and the end of the
Hundred Years’ War populations in
Europe grew
B. As wealth grew, patronage of the arts
grew, first with rich merchants in Flanders
C. Rulers in England and France became
patrons
Ex. Francis I of France and da Vinci
D. Northern Renaissance
developed its own style –
especially realism
E. Some northern humanists
developed plans for changing
society based on JudeoChristian values
II. Artistic Ideas Spread
A. Warfare forced some artists northward
and others who trained in Italy returned to
Northern Europe
B. Germany
1. Albrecht Durer – woodcuts, engravings,
helped spread style
2. Hans Holbein the Youner-portraits with
realism
C. Flemish (Flanders)
1. Jan van Eyck – oil painting
2. Peter Bruegel the Elder everyday life, crowds, colors and
details
III. Northern Writers
A. Writers wanted to revive classic
languages and texts
B. Northern writers used these to examine
the teachings of the Catholic Church
which they felt didn’t teach people to live
a Christian life
C. Known as Christian Humanists – new
movement to reform society
D. Desiderius Erasmus – best known
Christian humanist – believed that to
improve society people should study
the Bible
E. Thomas Moore – Utopia –tried to
show an ideal society without greed,
corruption or war – wrote in Latin
. Women’s reforms
1. Those who could afford to educate their
children educated their sons, not their
daughters
2. Christine de Pizan –highly educated,
spoke out for education of all; one of first
European writers to question different
treatment of boys and girls
F
IV. The Elizabethan Age
A. Renaissance spread to England in
the mid-1500s
B. 1558-1603 – Elizabethan Age
C. Named for Queen Elizabeth I –
reigned from 1558-1603
D. Supported development of English
art and culture
E. William Shakespeare – most
famous writer of the age
1. Revered the classics
2. Used them for inspiration
3. Revealed the souls through
scenes of conflict
V. Printing Spreads Renaissance Ideas
A. Chinese invented types of printing
B. Johann Gutenberg, 1440
1. Developed printing press
2. German
3. 1455 – Bible printed with moveable type
4. Could print hundreds of copies of a single
work
5. Book prices dropped
6. Religious works then other types – travel,
medical, etc.
VI. Legacy of the Renaissance
A. Period of great social and artistic
change
B. Break from ideas centered around the
Church
C. Belief in the individual led to democratic
ideas
D. Movable type printing led to the spread
of ideas
E. Changes in the arts
F. Changes in society
Chapter 1 Section 3
Luther Leads the Reformation
Preview: People began to criticize the
Catholic Church saying its leaders
were too interested in earthly pursuits
such as gaining political power and
wealth
I. Causes of the Reformation
A. Many forces weakened the power of the
Catholic Church:
1. Emphasis on the importance of the
individual challenged Church authority
2. The printing press helped spread the
ideas
3. Rulers challenged the Church’s power –
ex. Germany
4. Northern merchants resented paying
taxes to Rome
5. Created demand for change
B. Criticisms of the Catholic Church
1. Critics claimed the leaders were
corrupt
2. Popes spent money on arts,
personal pleasures, and fought wars
3. Lower clergy – many poorly
educated or broke vows
C. Calls for reform
1. Influenced by reformers, people felt that
priests should meet a higher standard of
conduct
2. John Wycliffe (England) and Jan Hus
(Bohemia)called for reform – said the pope
did not have worldly power
3. Desiderius Erasmus and Thomas
More – Christian humanists for
reform
4. People were reading the texts and
forming own opinions
II. Luther Challenges the Church
A. Martin Luther – monk and teacher –
German
B. 1517 Friar John Tetzel – selling
indulgences (pardons from sin) – pay, sins
forgiven
C.***Luther wrote the 95 Theses
attacking the “Pardon merchants”
D. Posted these on the cathedral
doors at Wittenberg
E. Theses taken to printer and
circulated
F.Start of the Reformation – movement for
religious reform
G. **Led to the founding of churches that
did not accept the pope’s authority
H. Luther’s main ideas
1. Achieve salvation through faith alone,
not faith and good works
2. All Church teachings should be based
on words from the Bible
3. All people with faith were equal – no
need for priests to interpret the Bible for
them
III. The Response to Luther
A. Many who had been unhappy saw
Luther’s protest as a way to challenge the
Church
B. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther
C. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued
Edict of Worms calling Luther a heretic
and outlaw
D. Prince Frederick of Saxony hid
Luther ; Luther translated the
New Testament into German
E. **When Luther returned to
Wittenberg he found that his ideas
were in practice as the Lutherans or
Lutheran Church
F. Peasants’ revolt
1. 1524 German peasants revolted –
Luther supported the German princes
2. Revolt was crushed – peasants
rejected Luther’s religious
leadership
G. Germany at war
1. Northern German princes supported
Luther’s beliefs
2. Some agrees with beliefs while others
wanted to be able to seize church property
and become independent from the HRE
Charles V
3. **1529 – Princes loyal to the pope vs.
those who supported Luther
4. Luther’s supporters signed a
protest against those loyal to the pope
5. *****became known as the
Protestants – Christians belonging to
non-Catholic churches
6. War – settled by Peace of Augsburg
in 1555 – said German rulers could
determine which religion their areas
would follow
IV. England Becomes Protestant
A. Henry VIII
1. Catholic – pope named him “Defender
of the Faith”
2. Needed a male heir
3. One daughter – Mary,
but no woman had been
leader of England
4. Wanted marriage annulled
so could remarry and have a
son but Pope refused (Henry’s
wife was the aunt of the
HRE, Charles V)
5. 1529 – called Parliament into session –
passed laws ending the pope’s power in
England (Reformation Parliament)
6. 1533 – Married Anne Boleyn and
Parliament legalized his divorce from
Catherine
7. Act of Supremacy – 1535 –
said Henry was the official
head of the English Church
8. Some opposition –
ex. Thomas More – found guilty
of treason and executed
B. Consequences
1. Anne had a daughter (Elizabeth) –
was charged with treason and
beheaded
2. Henry married
Jane Seymour –
had one son then died
3. Henry was married 3
more times – no more
children
4. All three children ruled
a. Edward – became king at 9 – led
by Protestant advisors – only ruled
for 6 years
b. Mary – Catholic – had Protestants
executed
c. Elizabeth began rule in 1558
C. Elizabeth and Protestantism
1. 1559 Parliament set up the Church
of England or Anglican Church
2. Only legal church in England
3. Made changes
a. Priests could marry
b. Sermons in English
not Latin
c. Changes in services
to be more pleasing to Catholics
D. Elizabeth’s Other Challenges
1. Challenges from Protestants
and Catholics
2. Money concerns
3. Fear of Philip II of Spain
Chapter 1 Section 4
The Reformation Continues
Preview: Protestantism
spread to other areas of
Europe.
I.Calvin Continues the Reformation
A. Huldrych Zwingli – Switzerland –
1. called for reform
2. wanted believers to have more
control over the Church
3.war broke out, Zwingli was killed
B. John Calvin – 1536, published
Institutes of the Christian Religion
1. Summary of Protestant theology
(religious beliefs)
2. Cannot earn salvation
3. Said God chooses
those to save – “the elect” –
known to God from
beginning of time
4. **called predestination
5. Religion called Calvinism
6. 1541 – Calvin controlled
Geneva – “theocracy”
7. Strict rules, religion classes,
punishment for not following,
model city?
II. Spread of Calvinism
A. Scotland – John Knox –
Presbyterians
B. France – Protestants were called
Huguenots – clashed with Catholics
– St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre
1572
III. Other Protestant Reformers
A. Groups began to interpret the Bible
and had differences in beliefs
B. Anabaptists – adult baptism, church
and state should be separate, refused to
fight in wars, shared possessions
C. Other Protestants and Catholics
both persecuted the Anabaptists
D. Forerunners of the Mennonites
and the Amish; influenced the
Quakers and Baptists
IV. Women in the Reformation
A. Francis I, Marguerite of Navarre
protected Calvin while he was in
France
B. Katherina von Bora –
Luther’s wife; former nun,
married and had children,
managed finances and
fed all
C. Women’s roles were limited
to the home, not the church
V. The Catholic Reformation
A. Reform of the Church from
Within
1. Ignatius of Loyola
a. Society of Jesus –
Jesuits
b. Founded schools
c. Convert non-Catholics
– sent out missionaries
d. Stop spread of Protestantism
2. Pope Paul III – 1534-1549
a. Council of cardinals to investigate
sale of indulgences
b. Approved the Jesuit order
c. Inquisition to punish heretics
d. Council of Trent – agreed
on specific doctrines of the
Church
3. Pope Paul IV
a. Carried out Council’s
decrees
b. Index of Forbidden Books – destroy
these – including Protestant Bibles
V. The Legacy of the Reformation
A. Set the stage for the modern
world
B. Ended the Christian unity of
Europe
C. Left Europe culturally divided
D. Protestant churches grew and
denominations developed
E. Catholic Church – more unified
F. More emphasis on education –
parish schools, universities
G. Monarchs and states gained
power as the power of the Church
declined
H. Led to modern nation-states –
leaders sought power through
warfare, exploration and expansion
I. *Led to questioning beliefs and
authority, leading to the
Enlightenment