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DNA, RNA, & Proteins
Vocab review
Chapter 12
Main enzyme involved in linking
nucleotides into DNA molecules
during replication
DNA polymerase
Another name for protein synthesis
translation
Sugar used to make DNA
dexoyribose
Orientation in which the two
complementary strands in a DNA
molecule run in opposite directions
Anti-parallel
Sequence of DNA that can jump from
one location to another which is
thought to be involved in increasing
mutations in cells
Transposons or Jumping genes
Process of making a DNA copy
replication
Nitrogen base with 1 ring such as
cytosine and thymine
pyrimidine
Organism whose cells have a nucleus
eukaryote
Process in which the genetic code of
DNA is copied into a strand of RNA
transcription
Three sequential nucleotides in an
mRNA molecule that code for a
specific amino acid
codon
Organism without a nucleus
prokaryote
Nitrogen base with 2 rings like adenine
and guanine
Purine
Subunit composed of a sugar,
nitrogen base, and a phosphate group
used to make DNA and RNA
nucleotide
Principle that hydrogen bonds can
only form between certain nitrogen bases
Base pairing
Process in which one strain of bacteria
is genetically changed by receiving
DNA from another
transformation
Series of genes that controls
development and differentiation in
the developing embryo
Hox genes
Coiled DNA and proteins that are
spread out in the nucleus of nondividing cells
chromatin
Group of three nucleotide bases on a
t-RNA molecule that are
complementary to an mRNA codon
anticodon
Tightly packed DNA and proteins that
are “scrunched up” into rod-shaped
bundles in dividing cells
chromosomes
Expressed sequence of DNA that
codes for a protein
exon
Process of making proteins from an
RNA message
Translation (protein synthesis)
Type of RNA that carries DNA code
from the nucleus out to the cytoplasm
Messenger RNA
Segment of DNA that codes for a protein
gene
Region of DNA where RNA polymerase
binds to start transcription
promoter
Protein molecule around which DNA is
wrapped to form a nucleosome in
chromatin
histone
Bonds between nitrogen bases that
hold the 2 DNA strands together
Hydrogen bonds
Bead-like structures that form when
DNA wraps around histones
nucleosome
Type of RNA that matches its
anticodon and attaches the correct
amino acid to the growing protein
chain during protein synthesis
Transfer RNA
Structures found in the cytoplasm
made of rRNA and proteins where
protein synthesis happens
Ribosomes
Type of RNA that combines with
proteins to make ribosomes
Ribosomal RNA
Sugar found in RNA molecules
ribose
Group of genes in a prokaryote that
operate together
operon
Region of DNA near the promoter
where repressor proteins bind and
turn genes off
operator
Enzyme that binds to DNA, separates
the strands, and assembles nucleotide
subunits into an RNA molecule
RNA polymerase
Protein that binds to the operator site
and stops RNA polymerase from
binding and transcribing a gene
repressor
Process of changing into different kinds
of cells with different functions
differentiation
Macromolecule made by joining
nucleotide subunits together
Nucleic acid (DNA & RNA)
Virus that infects bacteria
bacteriophage
Another name for a protein chain
polypeptide
Macromolecule made by joining amino
acid subunits together
protein
Regulatory region with the sequence
TATATA or TATAAA found in many
types of organisms which helps position
RNA polymerase
TATA box
Sequence of DNA that is NOT involved
in coding for a protein which is cut out
of the m-RNA molecule before it is read
by the ribosomes
intron
KINDS OF MUTATIONS
Mutations that produce changes in a single
GENE MUTATIONS
gene = ______________________
Mutations that produce changes in whole
chromosomes =
CHROMOSOMAL MUTATIONS
_____________________
KINDS OF MUTATIONS
Change in one or just a few nucleotide in the
code
Point mutation
Deletion or insertion that causes the remaining
nucleotides to be regrouped & read incorrectly
Frameshift mutation
KINDS OF MUTATIONS
One nucleotide in code is replaced by
another
substitution
Complete set of chromosomes fails to
separate resulting in 3N or 4N organisms
polyploidy
KINDS OF MUTATIONS
Piece of DNA is broken off and lost
deletion
Piece of DNA breaks off and reattaches to
another
translocation
KINDS OF MUTATIONS
Piece of DNA breaks off, flips, and
reattaches so that it reads backwards
inversion
Piece of DNA is added to the code
insertion
Extra copies of part of a chromosome are
made
duplication