H biology Modern Genetics - Pleasantville High School

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Transcript H biology Modern Genetics - Pleasantville High School

Molecular
Biology of
Inheritance
10-1
DNA Is the Genetic Material
10-2
10.1 DNA is a transforming substance
 During the late 1920s, the bacteriologist
Frederick Griffith was attempting to develop a
vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae
(pneumococcus)
Figure 10.1 Griffith’s transformation experiment
10-3
10.2 DNA, not protein,
is the genetic material
 Hershey and Chase Experiment
 In their experiment, Hershey and Chase relied on a chemical
difference between DNA and protein to solve whether DNA or
protein was the genetic material
Figure 10.2A Structure of
the virus (T2 bacteriophage)
used by Hershey and Chase
10-4
Figure 10.2B Hershey and Chase experiment I
10-5
Figure 10.2B Hershey and Chase experiment I (Cont.)
10-6
Figure 10.2C Hershey and Chase experiment II
10-7
Figure 10.2C Hershey and Chase experiment II (Cont.)
10-8
10.3 DNA and RNA are
polymers of nucleotides
 Nucleic acids contain only nucleotides,
molecules that are composed of a nitrogencontaining base, a phosphate, and a pentose
(5-carbon sugar)
 DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) contains the
5-carbon sugar deoxyribose
 DNA contains four nucleotides with different
bases
 Adenine, Guanine, Thymine, and Cytosine
10-9
Figure 10.3A DNA is a
polynucleotide—contains
many nucleotides
10-10
Figure 10.3B The four bases in DNA nucleotides
10-11
RNA
 RNA (ribonucleic acid) another polymer of nucleotides
 RNA differs from DNA
 Has ribose as a sugar, not deoxyribose
 Has uracil in place of thymine
Figure 10.3C The
uracil nucleotide
in RNA replaces
thymine in DNA
10-12
10.4 DNA meets the criteria for the
genetic material
 The genetic material must be:
 Variable between species and able to store
information that causes species to vary from
one another
 Constant within a species and able to be
replicated with high fidelity during cell division
 Able to undergo rare changes, called
mutations, that provide the genetic variability
that allows evolution to occur
10-13
Figure 10.4
Complementary
base pairing
10-14
10.5 DNA is a double helix
 The double helix suggests that the stability and variability
of the molecule is in the sequence of bases
Figure 10.5A X-ray diffraction of DNA
10-15
10.5 DNA is a double helix
 The double helix suggests that the stability and variability
of the molecule is in the sequence of bases
Figure 10.5A X-ray diffraction of DNA (Cont.)
10-16
Figure 10.5B The
Watson and Crick
model of DNA
10-17
Figure 10.5B The
Watson and Crick
model of DNA
(Cont.)
10-18
Figure 10.5B The
Watson and Crick
model of DNA
(Cont.)
10-19
Figure 10.5B The
Watson and Crick
model of DNA
(Cont.)
10-20
DNA Can Be Duplicated
10-21
10.6 DNA replication is
semiconservative
 DNA replication - the process of copying a DNA
molecule
 Replication requires the following steps:
 Unwinding: Old strands are unwound and “unzipped”
 Complementary base pairing: New complementary
nucleotides are positioned by the process of base
pairing
 Joining: Complementary nucleotides join to form new
strands
 Each daughter DNA molecule contains a template strand, or
old strand, and a new strand
 Steps 2 and 3 are carried out by DNA
polymerase
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Figure 10.6
Semiconservative
replication (simplified)
10-23
10.7 Many different proteins
help DNA replicate
Figure 10.7 DNA
replication (in depth)
10-24
10.7 Many different proteins
help DNA replicate
Figure 10.7 DNA
replication (in depth)
(Cont.)
10-25
Genes Specify the Makeup of
Proteins
10-26
10.8 Genes are linked to proteins
Figure 10.8 Chemical basis of
sickle-cell disease in humans
10-27
10.8 Genes are linked to proteins
Figure 10.8 Chemical basis of
sickle-cell disease in humans
(Cont.)
10-28
10.9 The making of a protein
requires transcription and
translation
 Gene - segment of DNA that specifies the
amino acid sequence of a protein
 During transcription DNA serves as a
template for RNA formation
 DNA is transcribed, monomer by monomer,
into RNA
 During translation an RNA transcript
directs the sequence of amino acids in a
polypeptide
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Figure 10.9 Overview of gene expression
10-30
10.10 The genetic code for amino
acids is a triplet code
 Genetic code - sequence of nucleotides
in DNA specifies the order of amino acids
in a polypeptide
 Codon - three base sequence corresponding
to a specific amino acid
 Important properties of the genetic code:
 The genetic code is degenerate
 The genetic code is unambiguous
 The code has start and stop signals
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Figure 10.10
RNA codons
10-32
10.11 During transcription, a gene passes its
coded information to an mRNA
 messenger RNA (mRNA) - takes instructions
from DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the
cytoplasm
 RNA polymerase joins the nucleotides together
 Promoter defines the start of a gene, the direction of
transcription, and the strand to be transcribed
 Stop sequence causes RNA polymerase to stop
transcribing the DNA and to release the mRNA
molecule, called an mRNA transcript
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Figure 10.11A
Transcription:
synthesis of RNA
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Figure 10.11B
mRNA transcripts
extending from
horizontal DNA
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10.12 In eukaryotes, an mRNA
is processed before
leaving the nucleus
 Primary mRNA is composed of exons and
introns
 The exons of mRNA will be expressed, but the
introns will not
 Function of Introns
 Might allow exons to be put together in different
sequences so that various mRNAs and proteins can
result from a single gene
 Some introns might regulate gene expression by
feeding back to determine which coding genes are to
be expressed and how they should be spliced
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Figure 10.12 mRNA
processing in eukaryotes
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Figure 10.12 mRNA
processing in eukaryotes
(Cont.)
10-38
10.13 During translation,
each transfer RNA carries a
particular amino acid
 transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules transfer amino
acids to the ribosomes
 Anticodon - a group of three bases that is
complementary to a specific codon of mRNA at a
ribosome
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Figure 10.13A
Cloverleaf model
of tRNA
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Figure 10.13B Space-filling model of tRNA molecule
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10.14 Translation occurs at
ribosomes in cytoplasm
 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) is produced from
a DNA template in the nucleolus of a
nucleus
 Polyribosome - several ribosomes are
often attached to and translating the same
mRNA
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Figure 10.14 Ribosome structure and function
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Figure 10.14 Ribosome structure and function (Cont.)
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10.15 Initiation begins the process
of polypeptide production
 Initiation - the step that brings all the translation
components together
Figure 10.15 Initiation
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10.16 Elongation builds a polypeptide
one amino acid at a time
 Elongation - a polypeptide increases in length one
amino acid at a time
Figure 10.16 Elongation cycle
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Let’s review gene expression
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10-48
Mutations Are Changes in the
Sequence of DNA Bases
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10.18 Mutations affect genetic
information and expression
 Genetic mutation - a permanent change
in the sequence of bases in DNA
 Point mutations - a change in a single DNA
nucleotide and, therefore, a change in a
specific codon
 Frameshift mutations occur when one or
more nucleotides are either inserted or
deleted from DNA
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Figure 10.18A Types of point mutations
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APPLYING THE CONCEPTS—HOW BIOLOGY IMPACTS OUR LIVES
10.19 Many agents can
cause mutations
 Some mutations are spontaneous while
others are due to environmental mutagens
 Environmental Mutagens
 Mutagen - an environmental agent that
increases the chances of a mutation
 Carcinogens - cancer-causing agents
 Tobacco smoke contains a number of organic
chemicals that are known carcinogens
10-52
APPLYING THE CONCEPTS—HOW SCIENCE PROGRESSES
10.20 Transposons are
“jumping genes”
 Transposons have the following effects:
 Are involved in transcriptional control because they
block transcription
 Can carry a copy of host genes when they jump and
can be a source of chromosomal mutations such as
translocations, deletions, and inversions
 Can leave copies of themselves and certain host
genes before jumping and be a source of duplication
 Can contain one or more genes that make a
bacterium resistant to antibiotics
10-53
Connecting the Concepts:
 Using all previously collected data concerning DNA
structure, Watson and Crick were able to arrive at the
legendary design of DNA—a double helix
 Complementary base pairing explains the replication of
DNA, how RNA molecules are made
 Geneticists have confirmed that proteins are the link
between the genotype and the phenotype
DNA base sequence → amino acid
sequence →
enzyme → organism structure
10-54