Transcript File

The Student will learn how to use indicator solutions and
standards to test for the presence of biologically important
molecules such as; simple sugar or monosaccharide,
carbohydrate or polysaccharide, lipids (fat), and protein.
We will use an egg as a
representation of a cell . The
shell is a protective outer
covering to prevent the
embryo from damage and
must be carefully removed in
order to look closer at the
“cell” components.
After placing the egg in an
acetic acid solution
(CH3COOH or 5% - white
vinegar) overnight, what type
of chemical reaction has
CaCO3 +
CO 2
+ Ca(CH3COO)2 +
Is this a balanced equation? What do we add to balance the equation?
Separating the egg into
its components is
called fractionation.
What are the
components of the
“cell” egg?
Calcium carbonate shell
Plasma membrane
Cytoplasm – egg white
Nuclear membrane and
nucleus – egg yolk
Testing components
with indicators must be
compared against
known composition
standards, (also called
positive controls) with
respect to indicator
◦ pH change of phenol red
to yellow indicates the
presence of carbon
Glucose (Simple Sugar
C6H12O6 Monosaccharide)
Starch (Complex Sugar or
Protein (very large molecule
or macromolecule made up
of amino acid chains
containing C, H, O, and N)
Fat (one type of Lipid)
Molecule Tested
Benedict’s Solution
Lugol’s Iodine
Biuret Reagant
Paper Bag test or
Sudan IV
Indicator used
air cell - an empty space located at the large end of the egg; it is
between the inner and outer shell membranes.
chalaza - a spiral, rope-like strand that anchors the yolk in the thick egg
white. There are two chalazae anchoring each yolk, one on the top and
one on the bottom. (The plural of chalaza is chalazae.)
germinal disc or blastodisc - a small, circular, white spot (2-3 mm
across) on the surface of the yolk; it is where the sperm enters the egg.
The nucleus of the egg is in the blastodisc.
inner shell membrane - the thin membrane located between the outer
shell membrane and the albumin.
outer shell membrane - the thin membrane located just inside the shell.
shell - the hard, protective coating of the egg. It is semi-permeable; it
lets gas exchange occur, but keeps other substances from entering the
egg. The shell is made of calcium carbonate.
thick albumin - the stringy part of the egg white (albumin) located
nearest the yolk.
thin albumin - the watery part of the egg white (albumin) located farthest
from the yolk.
vitelline (yolk) membrane - the membrane that surrounds the yolk.
yolk - the yellow, inner part of the egg where the embryo will form. The
yolk contains the food that will nourish the embryo as it grows.
(Molecule Tested)
Egg Membrane
Yolk (Egg Yolk)
Egg White
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Yes / No
Only black ink on all entries into the
Added papers must be taped on all four sides
◦ NWUI written on the bottom right corner
◦ Initialed
◦ Dated
Any incorrect entries must be single lined out
◦ Single lined out
◦ Initialed
◦ Dated
Page 1
Advanced Biotechnology Notebook
Cedar Ridge High School
Your full name
Today’s Date
Write “Table of Contents” at the top of each of
these pages
 Both facing (left) and frontage (right) pages will
be used
 The first page of every lab investigation should
be listed and fully titled in the Table of Contents
 Sign and date the bottom center of every page
starting on page 6 as you fill the page
 On the bottom center of the page you will write
“go to page ____”
 At the top corner, outside of the next page
starting on page 7 you will write
“from page ____”
Never write any laboratory information on the
last three lines of the page
 On the last line of the page remember to sign
and date the bottom center of every page
starting on page 6 as you fill the page
 On the bottom right of the page, starting on
page 6, you will write “go to page ____”
 At the top left-hand side of the next page,
starting on page 7, you will write
“from page ____”
Heading at the top of a new page to include:
A short description of the purpose of the lab:
◦ Name of lab
◦ Date of lab
◦ Full name of student
◦ This may be done as an objective, purpose, assay
Safety specifics for the lab (general safety is
Materials and Equipment list
Detailed list of Steps or your SOP in your own
words leaving a full space in between each
numbered step. (You may type and print pre-lab
information but you must follow proper taping
instructions.) Re-write allows for familiarization
of procedures preventing mistakes and wasted
Materials list should be present prior to instructions.
Record all directions and steps for procedures.
All quantities should be specifically listed.
All numbers must have units.
Lines must be skipped between all sections and data
tables, graphs, and important statements or
Qualitative data along with Quantitative data must be
You must use sufficient clarity that someone else with
similar skills can repeat your procedures if necessary.
Only universally accepted standard abbreviations may
be used.
Write pre-labs only on the left page (facing) only
Right pages (frontage) will be used for recorded
notes , data, results during lab.
If your pre-lab is typed you must format it to fit
the page and have no paper hanging over the
edges after taping.
The SOP should have only information limited to
the lab and should not include the additional
information such as background or history that
handouts will have. This additional information is
there to assist you in the learning of material or
techniques and should not be included on the
pre-lab. (Extract only actions required out of the
Pre-labs will be checked off just as your supervisor in
a work place will check your procedures.
During lab you will write everything down in black ink
to the right of the procedures. This includes supply
lots on reagent containers, dates opened, what
balance you used, time frames including intermittent
times, etc.
Changes that are made to the procedure need to be
documented and always, ALWAYS, show calculations
and units.
This documentation may be proof to where
something went wrong or possibly a link to a new
Each team member will write their own notes and
data but include their name in your report.
At the end of the report, after the conclusion,
you must list all persons from whom samples
or data were obtained and included in your
Any critical entries such as key data, analysis
conclusions, or new ideas must have a
“coworker” sign and date the entry in blue ink.
However, they must not be involved directly in
your data gathering or a co-inventor of your
procedure but capable of understanding the
meaning of the notebook entry.
Glassware, sharp objects, mild acid, eye
protection, clothing protection, hand
protection, do not ingest, caution near heat
MSDS cautions for:
◦ Benedict’s Solution
◦ Lugol’s Iodine Solution
◦ Biuret reagent (10%NaOH and CuSO4·5H2O)
 Check the NFPA for Health and Fire Safety