Translation Tutorial

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Transcript Translation Tutorial

Translation Tutorial
Start from the
beginning
Transcription
review
The Genetic
Code
Transfer RNA
Performing the
Process
Review
Questions
Place your keyboard aside. Only use the mouse.
Translation
ribosome
ribosome
ribosome
Translation takes place at the ribosome and it’s the process of the
ribosomes creating proteins from smaller amino acids. How did
we get to the ribosome? Let’s review.
next
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Transcription Review
CELL NUCEUS
ribosome
A process called transcription starts in the nucleus, where an enzyme called
RNA polymerase splits the DNA molecule. next
NEXT
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Transcription Review
CELL NUCEUS
AUG CCA
UAU GGC UAA GCA
ribosome
NEXT
A process called transcription starts in the nucleus, where an enzyme called
RNA polymerase splits the DNA molecule.
Next, free floating mRNA nucleotides bond to the open DNA molecule. next
Once finished, the mRNA breaks away and exits the nucleus. The mRNA will
then join a ribosome. Now, the process of translation will begin. next
BACK
Translation Process
ribosome
The ribosome will read 3 mRNA nucleotides at a time. The 3
mRNA nucleotides are called a codon. Each codon will match
for the delivery of a specific amino acid.
Remember that amino acids link together to create a single
Click to see the codons
protein.
It took scientists many years of experimentation to learn which
codon creates which amino acid.
next
BACK
Find AUG… This code calls
for the delivery of the amino
acid called methionine. Give it
a click.
The Genetic Code
This table is the same for almost every organism on Earth. In the chart
above, click on the “AUG” codon.
BACK
AUG codon
Find CCA… This code calls
for the delivery of the
amino acid called proline.
Give it a click.
Correct! Whenever an AUG codon is read by the ribosome, the amino acid called
METHIONINE will be delivered to the ribosome. Notice how the chart says “start
codon” below methionine? This also means that the codon AUG will activate the
ribosome to start the process of making a protein.
Click on the CCA codon.
BACK
CCA codon
Find the Stop Codons…
These codes tells the
ribosome to stop making a
protein. Give one a click.
Correct! Whenever a CCA codon is read by the ribosome, the amino acid called
PROLINE will be delivered to the ribosome. This process will continue until a “Stop
codon” is read by the ribosome. This is how the ribosome knows that a protein is
finished.
Click on any of the STOP CODONS.
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Transfer RNA
Correct! Stop codons tell
the ribosome to stop
making a protein.
So who…or what…is
delivering these
amino acids? In the
cytoplasm, there are
countless amino acids
and other molecules
called transfer RNA
(tRNA). tRNA will pick
up the proper amino
acid and deliver it to
the ribosome.
Amino Acid
serine
next
next
Amino acid
proline
next
next
Amino Acid
methionine
BACK
Watching the Process
The mRNA enters the ribosome. The ribosome will begin to read the mRNA one codon
at a time. Click on the amino acid that will be 1st delivered to the ribosome? Hint:
Examine the Genetic Code chart on your handout to find the 1st codon.
Now that methionine is delivered, tRNA
drops off methionine and the ribosome
moves to the next codon.
next
choices
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Amino acid
methionine
1st codon
ribosome
Examine the chart on your
handout. Find the AUG code.
AUG = methionine
BACK
Watching the Process
The mRNA enters the ribosome. The ribosome will begin to read the mRNA one codon
at a time. Click on the amino acid that will be 1st delivered to the ribosome? Hint:
Examine the Genetic Code chart on your handout to find the 1st codon.
Now that methionine is delivered, tRNA
drops off methionine and the ribosome
moves to the next codon.
next
choices
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Amino acid
methionine
ribosome
BACK
Watching the Process
The mRNA enters the ribosome. The ribosome will begin to read the mRNA one codon
at a time. Click on the amino acid that will be 1st delivered to the ribosome? Hint:
Examine the Genetic Code chart on your handout to find the 1st codon.
Now that methionine is delivered, tRNA
drops off methionine and the ribosome
moves to the next codon.
Click on the next amino acid to be
delivered.
choices
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Amino acid
methionine
2nd codon
ribosome
Examine the chart on your
handout. Find the CCA code.
CCA = proline
BACK
Watching the Process
Correct! CCA is the codon for the amino acid proline. Transfer RNA will deliver
proline to the ribosome.
next
Again, tRNA will drop off the amino
acid and exit. The ribosome will move
to the next codon.
next
choices
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Amino Acid
proline
Amino acid
methionine
ribosome
BACK
Watching the Process
Correct! CCA is the codon for the amino acid proline. Transfer RNA will deliver
proline to the ribosome.
Again, tRNA will drop off the amino
acid and exit. The ribosome will move
to the next codon.
next
choices
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Amino Acid
proline
Amino acid
methionine
ribosome
BACK
Watching the Process
Click on the amino acid which will be the 3rd delivered to the ribosome.
Once again, the tRNA exits and the
ribosome moves down a notch.
next
choices
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Amino Acid
tyrosine
Amino acidAmino Acid
methionine proline
ribosome
Examine the chart on your
handout. Find the UAU code.
UAU = tyrosine
BACK
Watching the Process
Click on the amino acid which will the 3rd delivered to the ribosome.
Examine the chart on your handout.
Find the GGC code. GGC = glycine
Once again, the tRNA exits and the
ribosome moves down a notch.
Click on the amino acid that will be 4th
delivered.
choices
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Amino Acid
tyrosine
Amino acidAmino Acid
methionine proline
ribosome
BACK
Watching the Process
Yep… GGC is the codon for the amino acid GLYCINE. Transfer RNA will
deliver glycine to the ribosome.
Now next
what happens?
choices
DNA helix splits
This
already
happened.
mRNA reads
the DNA
tRNA exits
This already
happened.
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Amino Acid
glycine
Amino acidAmino Acid
Amino Acid
methionine proline
tyrosine
ribosome
BACK
Watching the Process
You got it!
Examine the next codon and click the proper choice from the table below.
choices
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Amino Acid
glycine
Amino acidAmino Acid
Amino Acid
methionine proline
tyrosine
ribosome
Examine the
chart on your
handout. Find
the UAA code.
UAA = stop
codon
BACK
Watching the Process
STOP! This protein is finished. The ribosome and mRNA will break apart. How
many amino acids long is this finished protein?
One
Two
Three
Just count em up. Methionine, proline, tyrosine, glycine
Just count em up. Methionine, proline,
tyrosine, glycine
Just count em up. Methionine, proline,
tyrosine, glycine
Four
Five
choices
phenylalanine
serine
histidine
Glutamic acid
leucine
proline
glutamine
cysteine
isoleucine
threonine
asparagine
tryptophan
methionine
alanine
lysine
arginine
valine
tyrosine
Aspartic acid
glycine
Stop codon
Just count em up. Methionine, proline,
tyrosine, glycine
Amino acidAmino Acid
Amino AcidAmino Acid
methionine proline
glycine
tyrosine
ribosome
BACK
Amino acidAmino Acid
Amino AcidAmino Acid
methionine proline
glycine
tyrosine
This protein is only 4 amino acids in length. In reality, they are often
thousands of amino acids in size. This finished protein will now by
used by the cell or exported by which organelle of the cell?
Creates ATP molecules
mitochondria
Golgi body
Transports ribosomes
around the cell
Rough ER
Chloroplast
Performs
photosynthesis to make
sugar
BACK
Final Review
Good memory.
Review #1: Which process creates the mRNA that is read by the
ribosome?
Replication
This process creates
more DNA
Transcription
Translation
This process creates
proteins
BACK
Final Review
Correct!
Review #2: What does tRNA deliver to the ribosome?
mRNA
mRNA contains the
codes needed to make
a protein
DNA
Amino acids
DNA holds the
information to make a
protein
Proteins
Proteins are the final
product. What are their
smaller parts called?
BACK
Final Review
Correct!
Review #3: Which molecule directly determines which amino acid
transfer RNA delivers to the ribosome?
Messenger RNA
This molecule
indirectly holds the
code to make an amino
acid
DNA
RNA Polymerase
This enzyme splits DNA
during transcription
The Nucleus
The nucleus only stores
the DNA
BACK
Final Review
Correct!
Review #4: Where does the process of translation take place?
Inside the
nucleus
This is where
transcription
happens
Inside the
Golgi body
This is where
proteins go
before they
are exported
from the cell
At the
ribosome
Inside the
vacuole
The vacuole
holds food
and water
BACK
Final Review
Correct!
Review #5: If the DNA code was TTC-AAT-GGC, perform
transcription to determine the mRNA code.
AAG-TTA-CCG
TTC-AAT-GGC
AAG-UUA-CCG
UUG-TTA-UCG
DNA A with RNA U
DNA T with RNA A
DNA C with RNA G
DNA G with RNA C
DNA A with RNA U
DNA T with RNA A
DNA C with RNA G
DNA G with RNA C
DNA A with RNA U
DNA T with RNA A
DNA C with RNA G
DNA G with RNA C
BACK
Final Review
Correct!
Review #6: If the mRNA code is AAG-UUA-CCG, which three
amino acids are going to be delivered to the ribosome?
LYSINE – CYSTEINE - ASPARAGINE
LEUCINE - PROLINE - VALINE
LYSINE – LEUCINE - PROLINE
SERINE – METHIONINE - GLUTAMIC ACID
Correct!
BACK
I hope this tutorial was helpful. Turn in your handout. Feel free
to start over if you would like to do some review.
AAG -UUA-CCG
I will help you get started. The first codon is AAG. Find AAG on the
mRNA codon chart. AAG codes for lysine. This is the amino acid
that tRNA will deliver.
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