Transcript Slide 1

Chapter 3
The Molecules of Cells
PowerPoint Lectures for
Biology: Concepts and Connections, Fifth Edition
– Campbell, Reece, Taylor, and Simon
Lectures by Chris Romero
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
October 14, 2010 – “F” Day
• Objective: Understand that carbon rings and
chains form the backbone of all biological
molecules.
• Do Now: Why do you think carbon is vital to
the formation of all biological molecules?
• Today:
1. Do Now
2. Begin Food Lab
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
October 14, 2010 – “F” Day
• Objective: Understand that carbon rings and
chains form the backbone of all biological
molecules.
• Do Now: What is a Buckyball? Why are
scientists excited about them?
• Today:
1. Do Now
2. Begin Food Lab
3. Buckyballs
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
October 18, 2010 – “B” Day
• Objective: Understand that carbon rings and
chains form the backbone of all biological
molecules.
• Do Now: What elements would you find in a
hydrocarbon?
• Today:
1. Hand in IRP DD & Procedure
2. Discuss Food Lab
3. IRP FORMS!! Due WED!
3. Chapter 3 Notes – 3.1 – 3.4,
Exercises 1 - 3
4. Functional Group Flash Cards Due Wed!
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
October 19, 2010
“C” Day
Objective:
Understand that carbon rings
and chains form the backbone
of all biological molecules.
Do Now:
What are the main elements
found in living things? In
Carbohydrates?
Today:
1.Go over “Squirrel” Packet
2.Making Macromolecules
Carbohydrates
3.Continue 3.1 – 3.4 Notes,
Functional Group Flashcards,
Ex. 1 - 3
Smartboard
Door
Eliza
Paul
Ryan
Bea
Jessica
Sangsun
Ja
Suzie
Chelsea
Tim
Gordon
Jenn
Rachel
Josh S
Andrew
Stephanie
Jess
Cody
Josh Y.
Marissa
Lee
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Kathleen
October 22, 2010
“D” Day
Objective:
Understand that carbon rings
and chains form the backbone
of all biological molecules.
Do Now:
What elements make up fats?
What are the parts of a fat?
Today:
1.Functional Group Quiz
2.Continue Chapter 3 Notes
Smartboard
Door
Stephen
Nick G
Matt B
Kevin
Nicole
Sarah
Brett
Sawyer
Matt P
Katy
Lindsay
Erin
Bjay
Rose
Sean
Jeremy
Andrew
Darcy
Bobby
Patrick
Ben
John
Nick M.
3.Homework – Finish your
chapter 3 reading and notes,
and exercises 4-8 for Monday.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
October 22, 2010 “D” Day
Objective:
Understand that carbon rings and chains form the backbone
of all biological molecules.
Do Now:
What elements make up lipids? What are the parts of a fat?
Today:
1.Functional Group Quiz
2.Continue Chapter 3 Notes
3.Building Macromolecules Part 2 & 3
4.Homework – Finish your chapter 3 reading and notes, and
exercises 4-8 for Monday.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
October 26, 2010 “B” Day
Objective:
Understand that carbon rings and chains form the backbone
of all biological molecules.
Do Now:
What are the monomers of Proteins? What are the levels of
organization of Proteins?
Today:
1.Check in/go over review exercises
2.Complete Journey to the Galapagos – Darwin/DCI Review
3.(Supplement your notes, 3.11 – 3.20)
Tomorrow – Macromolecules Chart & Spaghetti-ase Lab
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
October 27, 2010 “D” Day
Objective:
Understand that carbon rings and chains form the backbone
of all biological molecules.
Do Now:
What are the monomers of Nucleic Acids? How do these
monomers bond together?
Today:
1. Do Now
2. Complete Ch. 3 Notes
3. Protein Fo
4. Macromolecules chart
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
October 29, 2010 “E” Day
Objective:
Understand that carbon rings and chains form the backbone
of all biological molecules.
Do Now:
What type of reaction causes monomers to bond together?
What type of reaction breaks macromolecules apart?
Today:
1. Do Now
2. Spaghettiase Lab
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
November 1, 2010 “E” Day
Objective:
Understand that carbon rings and chains form the backbone
of all biological molecules.
Do Now:
What is an enzyme? Based on your Spaghettiase Lab,
what might inhibit an enzyme’s action?
Today:
1.Do Now
2.Spaghettiase Lab
3.Unit 2 – Chapter 2 & 3 Review Sheet
Test THURSDAY!!
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
October 21, 2010 - “E” Day
Objective:
Understand that carbon rings and chains form the backbone of all
biological molecules.
Do Now:
What are the functions of Lipids? Nucleic Acids
Today:
1. FORMS!
2. 3.1 – 3.4 Notes
3. Lipids
4. HWK
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Got Lactose?
• Many people in the world suffer from lactose
intolerance
–
Lacking an enzyme that digests lactose, a
sugar found in milk
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Lactose intolerance illustrates the importance of
biological molecules
– To the functioning of living cells and to
human health
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIC COMPOUNDS
3.1 Life’s molecular diversity is based on the
properties of carbon
• A carbon atom can form four covalent bonds
–
Allowing it to build large and diverse organic
compounds
Structural
formula
Ball-and-stick
model
H
H
C
Space-filling
model
H
H
H
C
H
Methane
H
H
The 4 single bonds of carbon point to the corners of a tetrahedron.
Figure 3.1A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Carbon chains vary in many ways
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
Ethane
H
Propane
Carbon skeletons vary in length.
H
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
H
H
C
H
H
H
Butane
Isobutane
Skeletons may be unbranched or branched.
H
H
C
C
C
H
H
H
H
C
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
C
C
C
C
H
H
H
1-Butene
2-Butene
Skeletons may have double bonds, which can vary in location.
H
H
H
H
C
H
H
C
C
H
H
H
C
Figure 3.1A
C
H
C
C
H
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
C
H
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Cyclohexane
H
Benzene
• Hydrocarbons
–
Are composed of only hydrogen and carbon
• Some carbon compounds are isomers
–
Molecules with the same molecular formula
but different structures
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3.2 Functional groups help determine the properties
of organic compounds
• Examples of functional groups
H
Table 3.2
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• Functional groups are particular groupings of atoms
–
That give organic molecules particular
properties
OH
Estradiol
HO
Female lion
OH
O
Figure 3.2
Male lion
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Testosterone
3.3 Cells make a huge number of large
molecules from a small set of small molecules
• The four main classes of biological molecules
– Are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and
nucleic acids
• Many of the molecules are gigantic
– And are called macromolecules
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Cells make most of their large molecules
–
By joining smaller organic molecules into
chains called polymers
• Cells link monomers to form polymers
–
By a dehydration (synthesis) or
condensation reaction
H
OH
OH
OH
Short polymer
Unlinked monomer
Dehydration
Dehydratio
reaction
n reaction
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
H2O
OH
O
H
H
H
Figure 3.3A
H
H
Longer polymer
• Polymers are broken down to monomers
–
By the reverse process, hydrolysis
H2O
H
OH
Hydrolysis
H
OH
OH
Figure 3.3B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
H
CARBOHYDRATES
3.4 Monosaccharides are the simplest
carbohydrates
• The carbohydrate monomers
–
Are monosaccharides
Figure 3.4A
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• A monosaccharide has a formula that is a multiple
of CH2O
–
And contains hydroxyl groups and a
carbonyl group
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The monosaccharides glucose and fructose are
isomers
–
That contain the same atoms but in different
arrangements
H
O
H
C
H
C
OH
C
O
C
H
H
C
OH
HO
C
H
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
H
C
OH
H
Figure 3.4B
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Glucose
HO
H
Fructose
• Monosaccharides can also occur as ring structures
6 CH2OH
H
5C
CH2OH
O
H
H
H
C 1
4C
OH
OH
3C
H
OH
O
H
OH
H
OH
HO
C2
H
H
H
O
OH
OH
Structural
formula
Figure 3.4C
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Abbreviated
structure
Simplified
structure
3.5 Cells link two single sugars to form
disaccharides
• Monosaccharides can join to form disaccharides
–
Such as sucrose (table sugar) and maltose
(brewing sugar)
CH2OH
CH2OH
O
O
H
HO
H
H
H
OH
H
H
OH
HO
OH
H
H
H
OH
Glucose
OH
H
OH
Glucose
H2O
CH2OH
H
HO
Figure 3.5
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
CH2OH
O
H
OH
H
H
OH
H
H
O
Maltose
O
H
OH
H
H
OH
H
OH
CONNECTION
3.6 How sweet is sweet?
• Various types of molecules, including nonsugars
–
Taste sweet because they bind to “sweet”
receptors on the tongue
Table 3.6
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
3.7 Polysaccharides are long chains of sugar units
• Polysaccharides are polymers of monosaccharides
–
Linked together by dehydration reactions
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Starch and glycogen are polysaccharides
–
That store sugar for later use
• Cellulose is a polysaccharide found in plant cell walls
O
Cellulose fibrils in
a plant cell wall
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
O
CELLULOSE
OO
OO
O OH
OO
O OH
OO
O
OO
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
O
GLYCOGEN
O O
Figure 3.7
O
O O
O
Cellulose
molecules
O
O
O
Glycogen
granules in
muscle
tissue
Glucose
monomer
STARCH
Starch granules in
potato tuber cells
OO
OO
O O
O
O O
O
LIPIDS
3.8 Fats are lipids that are mostly energy-storage
molecules
• Lipids are diverse compounds
–
That consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen
atoms linked by nonpolar covalent bonds
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Lipids are grouped together
– Because they are hydrophobic
Figure 3.8A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Fats, also called triglycerides
–
Are lipids whose main function is energy storage
–
Consist of glycerol linked to three fatty acids
H
H
H C
C
OH OH
Figure 3.8B
H
H
C H
OH
Glycerol
HO
C O
H2O
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
Fatty acid
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH3
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Figure 3.8C
H
H
H
C
C
C
O
O
O
C
O C
O C
H
O
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH3
CH3
CH
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH2
CH3
3.9 Phospholipids, waxes, and steroids are lipids
with a variety of functions
• Phospholipids are a major component of cell
membranes
• Waxes form waterproof coatings
• Steroids are often hormones
H3C
CH3
CH3
Figure 3.9
HO
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CH3
CH3
CONNECTION
3.10 Anabolic steroids pose health risks
• Anabolic steroids
– Are synthetic variants of testosterone
– Can cause serious health problems
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
PROTEINS
3.11 Proteins are essential to the structures and
activities of life
• A protein
– Is a polymer constructed from amino acid
monomers
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Proteins
–
Are involved in almost all of a cell’s activities
• As enzymes
–
They regulate chemical reactions.
Figure 3.11
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
3.12 Proteins are made from amino acids linked
by peptide bonds
• Protein diversity
– Is based on different arrangements of a
common set of 20 amino acid monomers
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Each amino acid contains
–
An amino group
–
A carboxyl group
–
An R group, which distinguishes each of the
20 different amino acids
H
O
H
N
C
H
C
OH
R
Amino
group
Figure 3.12A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Carboxyl (acid)
group
• Each amino acid has specific properties
– Based on its structure
H
H
H
O
N
H
C
H
C
CH2
O
N
OH
C
H
O
C
N
OH
H
CH
CH3
H
OH
CH2
CH2
OH
C
OH
Serine (Ser)
Hydrophobic
Figure 3.12B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
C
H
CH3
Leucine (Leu)
C
O
Aspartic acid (Asp)
Hydrophilic
• Cells link amino acids together
–
By dehydration synthesis
• The bonds between amino acid monomers
–
Are called peptide bonds
Carboxyl
group
Peptide
bond
Amino
group
H
H
H
O
N
H
C
C
H
+
OH
O
N
C
Dehydration
reaction
H
C
H
N
OH
R
R
Amino acid
Amino acid
H2O
H
H
O
C
C
R
H
N
C
H
R
Dipeptide
Figure 3.12C
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
O
C
OH
3.13 A protein’s specific shape determines its
function
• A protein consists of one or more polypeptide
chains
–
Folded into a unique shape that determines
the protein’s function
Groove
Figure 3.13A
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Groove
Figure 3.13B
3.14 A protein’s shape depends on four levels of
structure
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Primary Structure
• A protein’s primary structure
–
Is the sequence of amino acids forming its
polypeptide chains
Levels of Protein Structure
Leu Met
Pro
Primary structure
Gly
Thr
Gly Glu
Cys
Ser Lys
Asn Val
Val
Lys
Val
Ala
Leu Asp Ala Val Arg Gly Ser Pro
Amino acids
Figure 3.14A
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Ala
Ile
Val
His Val
Phe
Arg
Secondary structure
• A protein’s secondary structure
–
Is the coiling or folding of the chain,
stabilized by hydrogen bonding
Amino acids
Hydrogen
bond
C
C
N H
O C
Secondary structure
C
O C
N H
N H O C
C
C
C
H O
N H
O C
C
N
N H
O C
N H O C
R
C
H C
N H O
O C
C
C
N H
Alpha helix
Figure 3.14B
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
O H
H
O
N C CN
H
R CC N C CN
H
CC
O
H
O
O
H
O
C N CC
N
C
C H
H O C C N CN
H
O C
C
C
N
H
O
H
O
N C CN
H
CC N C C N
H
C
O
H
O
O
H
O
C N CC
N
H
C N C
H O C
CN
H
O C
Pleated sheet
Tertiary Structure
• A protein’s tertiary structure
–
Is the overall three-dimensional shape of a
polypeptide (one chain)
–
Based on R-group interactions
Tertiary structure
Polypeptide
(single subunit
of
transthyretin)
Figure 3.14C
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Quaternary Structure
• A protein’s quaternary structure
–
Results from the association of two or more
polypeptide chains
Polypeptide
chain
Quaternary structure
Transthyretin, with
four identical
polypeptide subunits
Figure 3.14D
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Collagen
TALKING ABOUT SCIENCE
3.19 Linus Pauling contributed to our understanding
of the chemistry of life
• Linus Pauling made important contributions
–
To our understanding of protein structure
and function
Figure 3.15
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
NUCLEIC ACIDS
3.20 Nucleic acids are information-rich polymers of
nucleotides
• Nucleic acids such as DNA and RNA
–
Serve as the blueprints for proteins and thus
control the life of a cell
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• The monomers of nucleic acids are nucleotides
–
Composed of a sugar, phosphate, and
nitrogenous base
H
H
N
N
N
H
OH
O
P
N
O
CH2
Nitrogenous
base (A)
O

O
Phosphate
group
H
H
H
H
OH
Figure 3.16A
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Sugar
N
H
H
• The sugar and phosphate
–
Form the backbone for the nucleic acid or
polynucleotide
A
T
C
G
T
Figure 3.16B
Sugar-phosphate
backbone
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
Nucleotide
• DNA consists of two polynucleotides
–
Twisted around each other in a double helix
C
A
C
C
T
G
G
A
T
C
G
A
T
T
A
Base
pair
G
T
A
A
T
Figure 3.16C
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
A
C
T
• RNA, by contrast
–
Is a single-stranded polynucleotide
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings
• Stretches of a DNA molecule called genes
–
Program the amino acid sequences of
proteins
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Benjamin Cummings