Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

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Transcript Central Dogma of Molecular Biology

CENTRAL DOGMA
OF MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
DNA Transcription and Translation
THE CENTRAL DOGMA
 DNA
is safe in the NUCLEUS,
protected by the nuclear membrane
 A gene is copied (transcribed) into
mRNA {{messenger RNA}}
 mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to a
ribosome (rRNA or ribsomal RNA),
where the instructions of the mRNA
are read and the protein is constructed
(translated).
 Materials (amino acids) are brought to
the ribosome by tRNA {{transfer RNA}}
CENTRAL DOGMA
Nucleus
DNA
mRNA
Transcription
(being transcribed)
Ribosomes
mRNA tRNA
Amino Acids
Translation
(being translated)
Proteins
DNA VS. RNA
Double
stranded
Bases are
A,T,C,G
Sugar is
deoxyribose
Found in
nucleus
Single stranded
Uracil (U)
instead of
Thymine (T)
Sugar is ribose
Found in
nucleus and
cytoplasm
SOME VOCABULARY
Transcription: when DNA is copied onto a
complementary strand of mRNA
 Translation: the construction of a protein from
the instructions of the mRNA. This happens at
the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. Here mRNA
codons match with tRNA anticodons to bring
amino acids.
 Codon: a sequence of 3 nucleotides that specify a
particular amino acid in the mRNA
 Anticodon: the complementary sequence of 3
nucleotides on tRNA matched to mRNA

PRACTICE MAKING A PROTEIN
DNA: TAC AAA GGC GAT GCA ATT
mRNA:
AUG UUU CCG CUA CGU UAA
{{tRNA anti-codons}}
Amino acids:
(Use p. 172 in your textbook)