Transcript File

Unit 4 – Drugs & Drug Abuse
Mrs. Davis
How Drugs Affect the Brain
Problem solving,
planning, reasoning,
organizing, attention,
judgment, emotional
responses, memory
Hearing, long-term memory
Senses, perception,
cognition, visual perception
Visual processing,
color recognition
Balance, coordination,
The most development of the frontal lobe is between the ages 15 and
22. Are you allowing drugs to hinder this important development?? A
teen that uses drugs changes his or her brain, and that in turn changes
their emotions, personality and values!
 Drug Addiction – A chronic, relapsing brain disease that is
characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite
harmful consequences. It is considered a brain disease because
drugs change the brain. They change its structure and how it
 Physical Dependence – body adapts to the drug and develops
a tolerance. Your body becomes dependent on a substance or
drug your cells cannot function without it.
 Psychological Dependence – is all in the mind. This is when you
think you need the drug and cannot live without it. Your whole
life revolves around getting the next dose.
 Withdrawal – drug specific physical or mental symptoms if
drug use is abruptly ceased. Nausea, vomiting, headaches are
the body telling you it needs more of the substances to return
to its new (artificial) state of normalcy.
 Tolerance – requiring more of a drug to achieve certain effects.
Brain’s Communication
What is dopamine??
 Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that helps control the brain’s
reward and pleasure centers.
 Using addictive drugs flood the brain with dopamine as much
as 10 times the normal level.
 The brain’s motivational center becomes reorganized. The
priorities are shuffled and now the top priority is to find and
use that substance.
 In this sense, the drug has essentially taken over the brain, and
the addict is no longer in control of their behavior.
What is dopamine??
 Over time, the brain adjusts to the excess dopamine and
decreases the amount of dopamine in the brain.
 This is why abusers eventually feel flat, lifeless, depressed, and
are unable to enjoy things that previously brought them
 Users must use more and more of the drug to achieve the
same “high” and bring their dopamine function back to
normal, an effect known as tolerance.
** However, addicts can recover. The brain has a remarkable ability
to mend from drug use.
Drug Scheduling
Schedule I – Most dangerous with a high
potential for abuse with potentially severe
psychological or physical dependence.
Heroin, LSD, Marijuana, Ecstasy, Peyote,
Mescaline, Psilocybin, GHB
Schedule II – High potential for abuse, less
abuse potential than Schedule I drugs.
Potentially leading to severe psychological
or physical dependence.
Vicodin, Cocaine, Meth, Methadone,
Oxycodone, Dexedrine, Adderall, and
Ritalin, Codeine, Morphine, PCP
Schedule III – Moderate to low potential
Ketamine, Anabolic Steroids
for physical and psychological dependence.
Schedule IV – Low potential for abuse and
low risk of dependence.
Xanax, Valium, Ambien, Darvon
Schedule V – Lower potential for abuse and Cough preparations with less than 200
contain limited quantities of certain
milligrams of codeine or 100 milliliters
(Robitussin AC), Lyrica
 Paranoia:
• An irrational fear or distrust of others – often drug induced
 Euphoria:
• A feeling of intense well-being that may be followed by a
“crash” or letdown.
 Flashbacks: a similar recurrence of the effects of a
hallucinogenic drug
Flashbacks can happen at any time without warning – long after the
drug use ends!
 Stimulants - speed up the
Central Nervous System (CNS)
 Examples:
• Methamphetamines
• Nicotine
• Caffeine
• Cocaine/Crack
• Amphetamines
What do stimulants do?
 Increases alertness and endurance
 Keep people awake
 Decrease appetite
 Produce feeling of well-being and euphoria
 Cocaine is a white powder made from coca
 The high feels so intense
increase heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature
cardiac arrest
 Then the crash feels so bad, that the person
wants to use it again.
 Overtime it will change the way your brain
works, teaching you to repeat the behavior.
 A form of cocaine that has been processed to make a rock crystal
that people smoke.
 The term “crack” refers to the crackling sound the rocks make when
they are heated.
Cocaine in its different forms
A pile of Cocaine
A pile of crack
cocaine ‘rocks’.
Bricks of cocaine, a form in which it is
commonly transported.
Interesting Facts
 Was Cocaine originally used in the making of Coca-Cola??
The only known measure of the amount of cocaine in Coca-Cola was
determined in 1902 as being as little as 1/400 of a grain (0.2 mg) per
ounce of syrup. The actual amount of cocaine that Coca-Cola
contained during the first twenty years of its production is practically
impossible to determine.
 Today, Coca-Cola contains only caffeine and clinical cocaine use is
restricted to a few surgical procedures.
 In 1914 the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act outlawed the use of cocaine
in the United States. This law incorrectly referred to cocaine as a
narcotic, and the misclassification passed into popular culture. As
stated above, cocaine is a stimulant, not a narcotic.
A highly addictive drug.
Meth provides a short-term feeling of euphoria and often leads to feeling of
depression, paranoia, and delusions.
Cooked with over-the-counter drugs in “meth labs”.
What is Meth Mouth?
 Saliva is needed to neutralize harsh acids and reduce bacteria
in the mouth. Meth fries up the salivary glands, letting the
acids and bacteria build up and rot teeth and gums.
What is Meth Mouth?
 Meth causes blood vessels to shrink, reducing the supply of
blood to the teeth and gums. This can lead to infections and
gums disease.
What is Meth Mouth?
 Meth users often clench and grind their teeth causing cracked
teeth and sores in the mouth.
What is Meth Mouth?
 Consumed by their addiction, Meth users pay little to no
attention to anything else, including oral hygiene. They stop
brushing their teeth and let bacteria build up in their mouths.
What is Meth Mouth?
 A user’s poor nutrition is a key factor in rotting teeth. Meth
also dehydrates users so they tend to crave a lot of sugary
drinks like soda. All that sugar makes the problem worse.
Amphetamines (Speed)
 People use to increase activity, boost alertness, and energy.
 When prescribed by a doctor, they can be relatively safe and
 Stimulants have been abused as an “academic performance
enhancement”. However, studies have found that they do not
increase learning or thinking ability who are not diagnosed
with ADHD.
 Addictive and can can result in withdrawal symptoms when
 Slow down the CNS – suppresses breathing and heartbeat.
 Commonly abused Depressants are:
Depressants do what to the body?
 Relax muscles
 Relieve feelings of tension / worry
 Bring on sleep
 Slow down heart and breathing rates
 Lower blood pressure
 The #1 most abused drug.
 Known as sedative-hypnotics, which generally describe their
sleep-inducing anxiety-decreasing effects.
Small doses: the abuser feels drowsy, disinhibited, and intoxicated.
Higher doses: the abuser is unable to be aroused (coma) and may
stop breathing.
Death is possible.
 Minor tranquilizers: therapeutic treatment of anxiety
disorders, alcohol withdrawal, seizures, insomnia, and muscle
spasms (ex. Xanax, valium).
 Major tranquilizers: used to treat mental disorders, such as
Rohypnol (Roofies)
 Is referred to as the date rape drug.
 Slurred speech, muscle relaxation, loss of motor coordination.
Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB)
 Also known as the date rape drug.
 Misused to cause amnesia.
Narcotics (Opioids)
 Dulls the senses and relieves pain.
 Produces a well-being by reducing tension, anxiety, and
 Highly addictive because they change the chemistry of the
brain; they decrease the perception of pain and alter the body’s
reaction to pain.
Narcotics (Opioids)
 Includes: oxycodone (oxycontin), morphine, heroin,
hydrocodone (vicodin), codeine, percocet, methadone, opium,
and more.
 Side Effects: Nausea, track marks, unconsciousness, confusion,
addiction, death.
Drugs Terms & Info Continued…
 When injecting substances through a needle a person is
at risk of contracting:
Hepatitis B
Heroin terms and
 Mainlining: Injecting the drug directly into the vein
 Skin-popping: Injecting the drug right under the skin
 Methadone: Drug used to help with withdrawal
symptoms. (also very addictive)
Heroin terms and info
 Track marks: Usually on/around vein of users
 Collapsed Veins: Can not get a needle into it
for drug or medical purposes
 Cause people to see images, hear sounds and feel sensations
that seem real but are not, making it hard to communicate or
think clearly.
 Hallucinations work by disrupting your nerve cells and
neurotransmitter serotonin.
 By changing the normal, healthy structure of serotonin in the
body hallucinogens twist and alter the way your brain processes
your sense, feelings, and visual information, loosening your grip
on reality.
Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD)
 Known as acid is one of the most potent mood-changing
 Users often experience flashbacks, or recurrences of certain
aspects of the drug experience.
 Often added to absorbent paper (blotter paper).
LSD Blotter Paper and Stickers
Phencyclidine (PCP)
 Distorts perceptions of sight and sound and produces
feelings of detachment from the environment and self.
Because the drug eliminates the sensation of pain, abusers may intentionally
injure or even kill themselves.
 Symptoms: mimic schizophrenia, such as delusions,
hallucinations, and paranoia.
Psilocybin (Shrooms)
 A hallucinogenic chemical found in an edible mushroom.
 Causes severe anxiety and paranoia.
DANGER: There is a similar looking mushroom
that is deadly and often mistaken for Psilocybin.
Ecstasy (MDMA)
 Acts as both a stimulant and psychedelic.
 Mainly affects brain cells that use the chemical serotonin.
 Interferes with the body’s ability to regulate temperature
resulting in cardiovascular system failure.
 You can never be sure what you are getting!!
 Distorts perceptions of sight and sound and makes the user
feel disconnected and not in control.
 Unconsciousness and amnesia could occur.
Peyote and Mescaline
 Peyote is a small, spineless cactus and the ingredient is the
hallucinogen mescaline.
 A mixture of herbs and spices sprayed with a synthetic
compound chemically similar to THC.
 Psychological effects include paranoia and panic attacks.
 It appears to be stored in the body for long periods of time and
therefore the long-term effects on humans are not fully known.
 Substances that produce chemical vapors that induce
psychoactive or mind-altering effects.
“Huffing” “Sniffing” or “Chroming”
 Side Effects: Dizziness, nosebleeds, euphoria, nausea, hearing
loss, slurred speech, lack of coordination
 Inhalants cause brain damage by cutting off oxygen flow to the
 The hippocampus is a part of the brain that is responsible for
memory. Someone who repeatedly uses inhalants may lose the
ability to learn new things or carry on a simple conversation.
 Inhalants can kill you the first time you use them!!
 It can take up to 2 weeks for the chemical to completely pass
from the body.
 22% of inhalant users will die from Sudden Sniffing Death.
Common Inhalants
Aerosol sprays
Correction fluid
Adhesives and cements (rubber
cement, plastic cement, etc.)
Nail polish remover (acetone or
similar chemicals)
Paint or spray paint
Paint thinner (turpentine similar
Air freshener
Canned air (compressed
Cassette player head cleaner
Xylene markers
Diethyl ether
 A mind altering
(psychoactive) drug.
 THC is the main ingredient
that produces the
psychoactive effect.
 Short-term effects – changes
in mood, impaired body
 Long-term effects – brain
development, reduce
thinking, memory, and
learning functions
Cannabis Facts and Info…
 Cannabis smoke contains more cancer causing
chemicals than cigarettes smoke.
 Males who regularly use marijuana may experience
• Lower levels of testosterone
• Lower sperm productivity
 Females who regularly use
marijuana may experience
Still births
Low birth weights
Similar condition to F.A.S.
Marijuana Did You
 Smoking one marijuana cigarette deposits
approximately four times the amount of tar into the
lungs than a filtered tobacco cigarette.
 Marijuana is considered a "gateway" drug, because it
often leads to the use of other illegal drugs such as
cocaine and heroin.
 Being in a room with marijuana
smoke can cause a "contact high"
from just breathing.
Anabolic Steroids
 Synthetic male hormones (testosterone) used to build muscle
and enhance performance.
 Addiction to steroids is different compared to other drugs of
abuse, because users don’t become high when using.
 People who become addicted keep using despite bad effects
on their bodies and lives.
Anabolic Steroid Side Effects
- Severe acne
- Fluid retention
- Weight gain
- Shrinking of testicles
- Reduced sperm count
- Development of breasts
Facial hair
Male-pattern baldness
Deepened voice
Change in menstrual
** Enlarged heart, heart attack, stroke, kidney failure problems
 At West Campus: Mrs. Disselhorst, Mrs. Reid, Mrs. Cooper
 At East Campus: Mrs. Eggert, Mr. Popovich
 At Both Campuses: Any of your teachers, school counselors,
assistant principals, Officer Rewiako
 Resource in our town: Rosecrance 815-363-6132
 National Institute on Drug Abuse: Get more facts about the
science behind drugs and addiction
Things to remember:
 Never let anyone buy you a drink unless you get it with them!
 Never let anyone prepare a drink for you unless you are there
to watch them!
 Never leave your drink unattended/Bring it with you! You
never know who could be watching!