DR KUNAL KOTHARI
BUTE HOUSE MEDICAL CENTRE
11TH OCTOBER 2016
IMPACT ON NHS
High blood pressure accounts for approximately 12% of all GP consultations
Estimated £1bn drug costs for high blood pressure per year
Diseases caused by high blood pressure cost the NHS over £2bn every year (~£10m per CCG)
Coronary heart disease £750m
Vascular dementia £320m
Chronic kidney disease £200m
Additional cost of social care
GLOBAL BURDEN OF DISEASE
High body-mass index
High systolic blood pressure
Alcohol and drug use
HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis
Diarrhea, lower respiratory & other common infectious diseases
Neglected tropical diseases & malaria
Other communicable, maternal, neonatal, & nutritional diseases
Chronic respiratory diseases
Mental & substance use disorders
Diabetes, urogenital, blood, & endocrine diseases
Other non-communicable diseases
Self-harm and interpersonal violence
Forces of nature, war, & legal intervention
High fasting plasma glucose
High total cholesterol
Low glomerular filtration rate
Low physical activity
Low bone mineral density
Child and maternal malnutrition
Sexual abuse and violence
Other environmental risks
Unsafe water/ sanitation/ handwashing
Percent of total disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs)
HOW TO MEASURE BP
• If the first blood pressure measurement is 140/90 mmhg or greater, measure BP again after
• If the second measurement is substantially different from the first, take a third measurement
after 1 minute.
• Use the lower of the last two measurements as the recorded clinic blood pressure.
• Arrange same-day admission if:
o BP is 220/120 mmhg or higher.
o BP is 180/110 mmhg or higher with signs
of accelerated (malignant)
hypertension (papilloedema and/or retinal
• Start antihypertensives immediately if no
signs of accelerated hypertension and:
o Systolic BP is 180 mmhg or higher, or
o Diastolic BP is 110 mmhg or higher.
• If blood pressures are persistently above 140/90 mmhg in clinic:
o Arrange ambulatory bp monitoring (ABPM) to confirm the diagnosis.
o If ABPM is not available or the person cannot tolerate abpm use home blood pressure monitoring
• Two blood pressure readings twice daily, ideally in the morning and evening, for at least four
days, and ideally for seven days.
• The first day’s readings should be discarded, and the remainder averaged to determine the
mean home blood pressure
• Stage 1 hypertension: clinic blood pressure is 140/90 mmhg or higher, and subsequent
ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) daytime average or home blood pressure
monitoring (HBPM) average blood pressure is 135/85 mmhg or higher
• Stage 2 hypertension: clinic blood pressure is 160/100 mmhg or higher, and subsequent ABPM
daytime average or HBPM average blood pressure is 150/95 mmhg or higher
• Severe hypertension: clinic systolic blood pressure is 180 mmhg or higher, or clinic diastolic blood
pressure is 110 mmhg or higher
• Read code
• Blood tests
• Urine dip/ACR
• Life style advice
• Qrisk calculations
o Reinforce lifestyle advice such as:
• Stopping smoking.
• Moderation in alcohol, salt, and caffeine
o Give advice on weight loss (if appropriate).
HOPE3 STUDY (2016)
• Randomised 12 705 people at 10% 10 year risk, with mean baseline blood pressures of 138/82
mmhg, to blood pressure lowering with candesartan plus hydrochlorothiazide, or placebo.
• After 5.6 years, with an average 6.0/3.0 mmhg reduction in blood pressure in the treatment
group, they found no significant reduction in major cardiovascular events in the treatment group
compared to controls.
WHEN TO START MEDICATIONS
• Offer antihypertensive treatment if the person is:
o Younger than 80 years with stage 1 hypertension and has one or more of the following:
o Target organ damage, established cardiovascular disease, renal disease, diabetes, and/or a 10 year
cardiovascular risk of 20% or more.
o Any age with stage 2 hypertension.
• If 55 years of age or older and of black African or Caribbean
ethnic origin (any age):
o Offer a CCB, or
o A low-dose thiazide-type diuretic, if:
• A CCB is not suitable (e.g. Oedema or intolerant),
• There is heart failure, or
• A high risk of heart failure.
• If younger than 55 years of age (not of black African or Caribbean
ethnic origin) start:
o An angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, or
o A low-cost angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AIIRA).
• If ace inhibitors or aiiras are not suitable:
o Start a low-dose thiazide-type diuretic or a calcium channel blocker (CCB).
o Aim for a BP lower than 140/90 mmhg for
people under 80 years.
o Aim for a bp lower than 150/90 mmhg for
people 80 years and older.
• If on monotherapy, add a second drug.
o If on an ace inhibitor or an aiira:
o Add a CCB.
o If the person cannot take a ccb, add a thiazide diuretic.
o If on a ccb or a thiazide diuretic:
o Add an ACE inhibitor or an AIIRA.
o If the person cannot take an ace inhibitor or an aiira consider combining a ccb with a thiazide diuretic.
• If on dual therapy prescribe a third antihypertensive such as:
o An ACE inhibitor or an AIIRA
o A calcium-channel blocker, and
o A thiazide-type diuretic.
PATHWAY 2 STUDY
The recent PATHWAY-2 study compared drug choices for step 4 of the A+C+D algorithm.
It randomised 335 patients with resistant hypertension (clinic blood pressure more than 140 mmhg and
home blood pressure more than 130 mmhg after at least three months on three drugs in maximum
tolerated doses) to spironolactone, bisoprolol, doxazosin, or placebo.
Resulting reductions in blood pressure with spironolactone were superior to placebo (-8.7 mmhg; 95%CI 9.7 to -7.7), and to the mean reductions with either bisoprolol or doxazosin (-4.3 mmhg, -5.1 to -3.4).
All drugs were well tolerated, with only six (2%) of patients treated with spironolactone exhibiting a
hyperkalaemia of more than 6.0 mmmol/L on single occasions.
• Risk associated with increasing blood pressure is continuous, with each 2 mmhg rise in
systolic blood pressure associated with a 7% increased risk of mortality from ischaemic heart
disease and a 10% increased risk of mortality from stroke
SPRINT TRIAL (NOV 15)
• Trial from US looked at intensive treatment
• Systolic BP 120 vs 140
• Trial stopped early
• Reductions in rates of cardiovascular mortality (43%), all cause mortality (27%), and heart failure
(38%) in the intensive treatment group.
• SPRINT found that the intensive group experienced acute kidney injury three times as often,
hypotension two and a half times as often, and falls resulting in injury twice as often, irrespective
of age, as the control group
• For people who are hypertensive without diabetes, NICE guidance sets a treatment target for
blood pressure of 140/90 mmhg, or 150/90 mmhg for people aged over 80 years.
Clinic target (mmHg)
Suggested ambulatory or Guideline (year)
home target (mmHg)
Elderly people (over 80
Diabetes with retinopathy, 130/80
cerebrovascular, or renal
Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease with 130/80
• Be cautious with lower blood pressure treatment targets, as intense treatment regimens can be
associated with increased adverse events
• Intensive lowering of blood pressure is associated with greater incidence of postural hypotension
and related morbidity
• Safely treating patients to lower blood pressure targets requires periodic checking of sitting and
standing blood pressure
HYPERTENSION AND PRIMARY PREVENTION
• In 2014 NICE lowered its recommended 10 year threshold for drug treatment with statins in
primary prevention, using qrisk2, from 20% to 10%
WHITE COAT HYPERTENSION
• Following is true regarding white coat hypertension
1) It is a benign condition
2) It is associated with higher rate of target organ damage as compare to normotensive
3) Nurses induce higher white coat effect as compare to doctors
4) It doesn’t need monitoring
5) At least 20mm of hg drop in systolic BP required at same sitting to predict white coat
o Renal disorders (chronic pyelonephritis, diabetic nephropathy).
o Vascular disorders (Coarctation of the aorta).
o Endocrine disorders (Primary hyperaldosteronism).
o Drugs (Alcohol, cocaine)
o Miscellaneous causes (Scleroderma, obstructive sleep apnoea).
• HYPERTENSION WITH A POSSIBLE UNDERLYING CAUSE (1)
• PATIENTS WITH HYPOKALAEMIA/INCREASED PLASMA SODIUM (E.G. CONN'S SYNDROME)
• HAEMATURIA OR PROTEINURIA
• RAISED SERUM CREATININE
• YOUNG AGE (ANY HYPERTENSION UNDER 20 YEARS: NEEDING TREATMENT < 30 YEARS)
• SUDDEN-ONSET OR WORSENING HYPERTENSION
• HYPERTENSION THAT IS RESISTANT TO MULTI-DRUG REGIMEN, THAT IS, >= 3 DRUGS