Pharmaceuticals and OTC*s

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Transcript Pharmaceuticals and OTC*s

Pharmaceuticals and OTC’s
How Much Do You Know?
Fill in the blanks in the following statements using one of the words provided in the Word Box.
Word Bank
Ritalin painkillers
vitamins hallucinations
pharm party
About 30 percent of teens wrongly believe that prescription________________ are not addictive, and that if a
drug is sold over the counter it can't cause harm.
OTC and ________________drugs can be as dangerous as illegal drugs if used to get high.
When combined, OTC drugs and prescription painkillers can cause an___________________ reaction.
Dextromethorphan or DXM is the ingredient in OCT medications that causes a high. It can also cause
Some teens take medications to a ______________________where all the pills are put in a bowl to be shared by
all those at the party.
How Much D o You Know? (continues)
Fill in the blanks in the following statements using one of the words provided in the Word Box.
Word Bank
Ritalin painkillers
vitamins hallucinations
pharm party
When mixed with _________________________, prescription painkillers are more deadly.
Many teens think that if ________________ was harmful, other teens would not be getting it with a
Ritalin, Adderall and many painkillers can become_____________________________________.
Abuse of Ritalin and Adderall have an effect on academic ________________________ , but not without a
10. OTC and prescription drug abuse can cause high blood pressure, _________________________ and death.
11. Using a prescription drug that was not prescribed for you is _____________________________.
12. Taking too much of almost any drug, including some _________________________ , can be toxic.
Prescription drugs that are taken for recreational use include the following major
1. Depressants: Often referred to as central nervous system (brain and spinal cord)
depressants, these drugs slow brain function. They include sedatives (used to make
a person calm and drowsy) and tranquilizers (intended to reduce tension or anxiety).
2. Opioids and morphine derivatives: Generally referred to as painkillers, these drugs
contain opium or opium-like substances and are used to relieve pain.
3. Stimulants: A class of drugs intended to increase energy and alertness but which
also increase blood pressure, heart rate and breathing.
4. Antidepressants: Psychiatric drugs that are supposed to handle depression.
• derivative: a chemical substance formed from a related substance.
How They Work:
affect the specific parts of the brain that
process pain
OxyContin, Vicodin, Codeine, Percocet, Demerol Valium, Xanax, Ativan
Prescribed For:
pain relief, coughing, diarrhea
anxiety, tension, panic attacks, stress, sleeping attention deficit hyperactivity
disorder (ADHD)
Effects (when taken as directed):
pain relief, drowsiness, constipation, slowed
breathing, feelings of pleasure
faster heart rate and breathing
rate, higher blood pressure,
increased energy, alertness and
relaxation, sluggishness, slurred speech,
attention, reduced appetite,
fatigue, lack of coordination, shallow breathing sleeping problems
Similar To:
Risks of Abuse:
vomiting, mood changes, inability to think
clearly, slowed breathing, coma, death
impaired judgment, memory and coordination, high body temperature,
irritability, paranoia, suicidal thoughts, slowed irregular heartbeat, seizures,
breathing and heart rate, death
heart attack
Other Dangers:
suddenly quitting depressants (instead of
withdrawal symptoms include bone and muscle gradually stopping, as a doctor would advise)
aches, vomiting, diarrhea, restlessness,
can cause seizures as the brain waves "bounce high doses can cause feelings of
insomnia, cold flashes
hostility and paranoia
slow down brain activity
increase brain activity
Ritalin, Adderall, Dexedrine
Show“Everything You Need to Know About Pharmaceuticals and OTC’s”
What Are Medicines?
Medicines are chemicals or compounds used to cure, halt, or prevent disease; ease symptoms; or help in the diagnosis of certain
illnesses. Advances in medications have enabled doctors to cure many diseases and save lives.
These days, medicines come from a variety of sources. Many were developed from substances found in nature, and even today many
are extracted from plants.
Some medicines are produced in a laboratory by mixing together a number of chemicals. Others, like penicillin, are byproducts of
organisms such as fungus. And a few medicines are even biologically engineered y inserting genes into bacteria that make them produce
the desired substance.
When we think about taking medications, we often think of pills. The truth is, there are many ways in which medications can be
delivered, such as:
liquids that are swallowed (like cough syrup)
drops that are put into ears or eyes
creams, gels, or ointments that are rubbed onto the skin
inhalers (like nasal sprays or asthma inhalers)
patches that are stuck to skin (called transdermal patches)
tablets that are placed under the tongue (called sublingual medicines; the medication is absorbed into blood
vessels and enters the bloodstream)
injections (shots) or intravenous (inserted into a vein) medications
No medicine can be sold for use unless it has first been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The manufacturers of
the medication perform tests on all new medicines and send the results to the FDA.
The FDA allows new medicines to be used only if they work and if they are safe enough. When a medicine's benefits outweigh its known
risks, the FDA usually approves the sale of the drug. The FDA can withdraw a medication from the market at any time if it later is found
to cause harmful side effects.
Over-the-Counter Drugs
Why do some people abuse prescription drugs?
Some people mistakenly think that prescription drugs are more powerful because you need a prescription for
them. But it's possible to abuse or become addicted to over-the-counter (OTC) medications, too.
For example, dextromethorphan (DXM) is found in some OTC cough medicines. When someone takes the
number of teaspoons or tablets that are recommended, everything is fine. But high doses can cause problems
with the senses (especially vision and hearing) and can lead to confusion, stomach pain, numbness, and even
What Are the Dangers of Abusing Medications?
Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with
friends, or with the law. The likelihood that someone will commit a crime, be a victim of a crime, or have an
accident is higher when that person is abusing drugs — no matter whether those drugs are medications or
street drugs.
Like all drug abuse, using prescription drugs for the wrong reasons has serious risks for a person's health.
Problems like vomiting, mood changes, decrease in ability to think (cognitive function), and even decreased
respiratory function, coma, or death.
Probably the most common result of prescription drug abuse is addiction. People who abuse medications can
become addicted just as easily as if they were taking street drugs. The reason many drugs have to be
prescribed by a doctor is because some of them are quite addictive. That's one of the reasons most doctors
won't usually renew a prescription unless they see the patient — they want to examine the patient to make
sure he or she isn't getting addicted.
Tips for Taking Prescription Medication
What if a doctor prescribed a medication for you and you're worried about becoming addicted? If you're taking the medicine the way
your doctor told you to, you can relax: Doctors know how much medication to prescribe so that it's just enough for you. In the correct
amount, the drug will relieve your symptoms without making you addicted.
If a doctor prescribes pain medications follow the directions exactly.
Here are some other ways to protect yourself:
- Read the label and follow directions. Ask if you have questions.
- Take medicines exactly as prescribed. If the instructions say take one tablet four times a day, don't take two tablets twice a day. It's
not the same.
- Keep all doctors' appointments. Your doctor will want to monitor how well the medication is working for you so if you feel worse
after taking a medicine, tell your doctor right away so adjustments to the dose or change the medication all together can be done.
- Some medications must be stopped or changed after a while so that the person doesn't become addicted.
- Make a note of the effects the drug has on your body and emotions, especially in the first few days as your body gets used to it. Tell
your doctor about these.
- Keep any information your pharmacist gives you about any drugs or activities you should steer clear of while taking your prescription.
Reread it often to remind yourself of what you should avoid. If the information is too long or complicated, ask a parent or your
pharmacist to give you the highlights.
- Don't increase or decrease the dose of your medication without checking with your doctor's office first no matter how you're feeling.
- If you're already taking a medication but also want to take something you can buy over-the-counter, ask the pharmacist. There could
be a bad interaction between the medications.
- Finally, never use someone else's prescription. And don't allow a friend to use yours. Not only are you putting your friend at risk, but
you could suffer, too: Pharmacists won't refill a prescription if a medication has been used up before it should be. And if you're found
giving medication to someone else, it's considered a crime and you could find yourself in court.
Purple Drank
Triple C
Cough Syrup
Robo Tripping
One afternoon a year and a half ago, 18-year-old Christine Weiss locked herself in the bathroom of an Orlando
drugstore with a package of Coricidin® HBP Cough & Cold. Ripping it open, she popped a handful of little red pills in
her mouth and washed them down with tap water. Then, fighting the urge to vomit--a side effect of taking about 12
times the recommended dose--Christine waited for the hallucinogenic effect of the huge amount of
dextromethorphan (DXM), a narcotic derivative that's in more than 80 over-the-counter cough medications, to kick
Like most kids who buy into this high, Christine didn't think about the dangers of abusing these medicines--addiction,
heart palpitations, blackouts, seizures, even death. She just wanted the trippy, disconnected feeling. The allure of
DXM is obvious: It's cheap, it's widely available and it's legal, which is why more and more teens are using it. In fact,
lots of kids barely register the risks. "At my school, people were making jokes about it," says Nate, 19, a former user
from Madison Heights, Mich.
It certainly didn't seem like a big deal to Christine. "My mind-set was, 'This is just an over-the-counter [drug] .... It's no
big deal. It's not like I'm doing cocaine or anything, - she says of first trying Coricidin®. And all it took was a half hour
to get high. "It was crazy--lights seemed brighter and sounds were louder. It was scary," she says. "Later, I started
liking it." Soon she was hooked and using daily.
Christine felt the damaging effects after a few months. "I started peeing blood," she says. "I felt sick.... My body felt
weak." At school, she lost interest in classes, fought with other kids and eventually got suspended. Blaming her
problems on her friends, her parents started homeschooling her, but soon she was fighting with them and left home.
"I gave up everything because I was obsessed with using," says Christine. "All I cared about was getting high." Finally,
two years after Christine started using, a worried friend clued her parents in to what she was doing and they sent her
to S.A.F.E., an Orlando treatment center.
Now, after a year in drug rehab, Christine is glad she got help. While at S.A.F.E., Christine graduated from high school.
When she finishes the 12-step program in 2004, she's got plans for college and a career as a drug counselor. "I
thought I could just use Coricidin for fun, that it didn't matter. I never expected to get hooked," says Christine. The
hardest part? "I'll never be able to get that time back. If I could erase it and make it go away, I would."