Transcript Slide 1

Chapter 10
Nutrition & Health
10.1 The Importance of Nutrition
 The
food you eat affects your health
and quality of life
Nutrition-the process by which your
body takes in and uses food (refers to
the study of the way in which the
substances in food affect our health)
 Nutrients-substances in food that
your body needs to grow, repair
itself, and supply energy
10.1 Influences on Food Choices
Difference between Hunger and Appetite
People eat for two reasons
– The body’s physical
response to the
need for food/fuel
– Symptoms: hunger
pangs, weakness,
dizziness, nausea,
and loss of
– Symptoms are
relieved by eating
– The psychological
desire to eat based
on the pleasure
derived from eating
– Influenced by taste,
texture or aroma of
certain foods
10.1 What influences eating
 Environmental
factors can influence
your eating behaviors(friends; time
& money; advertising)
 Social influences are among the most
important of these factors
 Family experiences, cultural heritage,
cost and other factors can often
determine the kinds of food you eat
 Emotional factors –turning to food to
deal with emotional needs
4.1 What influences eating
Level of
Location of
10.1 Some health problems related
to diet
Short term conditions
– Fatigue
– Bad moods
– Depression
Long term conditions
Heart disease
Adult-onset diabetes
High Blood pressure
Cirrhosis of the liver
Tooth Decay
Dietary deficiency
diseases (scurvy,
– Birth defects in infants
You Are What You Eat
What does this
mean? If you eat
only celery, will you
become a
vegetable? Explain…
6 Essential Nutrients
 Each
nutrient has and important
role(s) in keeping the body healthy.
Provide energy
Promote Growth & Development
Regulate Body Functions
 Calorie
– A unit of measurement /it measures the
energy content found in food
– 1 nutrition calorie = 1 kilocalorie
– 3,500 calories = 1 lb.
 Only
3 out of the 6 essential
nutrients provide calories/energy
Do you know which ones they are???
Carbohydrates, fats, & proteins
10.2 Essential Nutrients
– A class of nutrients containing complex
sugars, simple sugars, glycogen, and
dietary fiber
– Our main source of energy
– 1 gram of carbohydrates provides 4
calories of available energy
– Carbohydrates should make up 60
percent of your daily calories (300 gm)
– Food sources: breads, grains, pasta,
rice, cereal, vegetables, sugars
10.2 Essential Nutrients Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates can be divided into 3
classes based on their size and
~Single bonds of sugars/immediate energy
~glucose- blood sugar
~Fructose- fruit sugars
~Double bonded sugars (2 monosaccharides)
~ Lactose– milk sugars
~Sucrose – table sugar (produced from sugarcane)
3. Polysaccharides
~Many sugars bonded together
Ex: starchy foods-pasta, rice, whole grains (non
sweet tasting)
~Dietary fiber- A subclass of complex
carbohydrates with a high ratio of plant material
that is not absorbed by the body.
– It does not provide energy. Helps to protect against
colon cancer; constipation; heart disease; and moves
undigested food through the digestive tract. Serves as
“intestinal cleaner”.
20-25 grams needed per day
~Glycogen- sugar stored in muscle (animals)
and readily converted to glucose for energy.
Essential Nutrients- Fats
fats- A class of nutrients
that supply more energy
per gram than
carbohydrates or protein.
It’s the most concentrated
form of energy in food.
Stored energy
-9 calories per 1 gram of fat
-Fats should make up no
more than 30% of your
daily caloric intake (RDA)
* 65g/day
-Food sources: Meat, butter,
Essential nutrients- Fat
Saturated fat-
(Linked to Heart Disease)
Found in animal products
– Fats that contain single
bonds between carbon
atoms and the
maximum number of
hydrogen atoms bonded
to carbon
– Solid at room
– Animal fats, butter, lard
– Palm oil and coconut oil
– Contains cholesterol
– Limit to 10g/day
Unsaturated fat
Better for you!!!
Found in plant products
– Fats that contain one
or more double bonds
between carbon atoms
and have less than the
maximum number of
hydrogen atoms bonded
to carbon
– Liquid at room
– Vegetable and fish oil
Essential nutrients- Fat
Cholesterol- a fatlike substance that is part of
all animal cells and is needed for the production
of some hormones and fat digestion
 Two types:
– HDL (High Density lipoproteins): Compounds that
remove cholesterol from the blood and transport it
back to the liver “Good cholesterol”
– LDL (Low density lipoproteins): Compounds that
carry cholesterol to cells for cell purposes “Bad
The body makes all the cholesterol that it
 Cholesterol levels should be below 300 mg/dL
Essential Nutrients- Proteins
– Class of nutrients consisting
of long chains of amino
acids, which are the basic
components of body tissue
and provide energy
– Main Function: growth and
repair of body tissues
– 4 calories per 1 gram of
– Proteins should make up
10% of your daily caloric
intake RDA
(50 grams)
– Food sources: meat, fish,
legumes, nuts, seeds, dairy
Essential Nutrients- Proteins
 All
proteins are made of amino acids
– There are 20 amino acids
– 11 can be made in the body
– 9 others must be supplied by food
Essential Amino Acids: the group of nine
amino acids that cannot be
manufactured by the body and must be
supplied by food
Essential Nutrients- Proteins
Complete Protein
– A protein that
contains all nine
essential amino acids
– Generally, foods that
come from animal
products (meat, fish,
poultry, and dairy)
contain complete
Incomplete Protein
– A protein that lacks
one or more of the
essential amino acids
– Most proteins that
come from plant
sources are
incomplete proteins
Essential Nutrients-Vitamins
Vitamins- Organic
substances that
assist in the
chemical reactions
that occur in the
– Do not supply energy
– Essential for good
– Two types:
– Fat Soluble
Water Soluble
Fat Soluble
– Vitamins that dissolve in fat
and stored in body fat
– A, D, E and K
Water Soluble
– Vitamins that dissolve in
water and are not stored in
the body
– Any excess is excreted in
– Vitamin B group (B1, B2,
B3, B6, B12)
– Vitamin C
Essential Nutrients- Minerals
substances that
are generally
absorbed to form
components of the
– Do not supply
– Two types:
macrominerals and
trace minerals
– Needed in larger
amounts by the body
– Calcium, chlorine,
phosphorus, potassium,
and sodium (mg)
Trace Minerals
– Needed in smaller
– Fluorine, copper, iodine,
iron, selenium, and zinc
Essential Nutrients- Water
About ____ of your
weight is water
– 2/3
– 65-70% in males,
55-65% in females
– Most of this water is
found inside your
cells and the rest is
found outside cells
and bloodstream
– Chemical reactions
– Maintain acidity at
proper levels
– Help processes that
occur in the body
– Provides a medium
to transport gases,
nutrients, and waste
– Regulate body
 Water
loss through
perspiration cools the
Essential Nutrients- Water
Dehydration- A state in which the body has
lost more water than has been taken in.
– Water is so vital that you can’t live for more
than 10 days without it
– Prolonged dehydration can lead to kidney failure
and death
– Required daily water intake: ~8 glasses a day/ 2
– We can get our required water intake through
drinking fluids and eating
– How can you tell if you’re adequately hydrated?
10.3 Healthy Food Guidelines
Dietary Guidelines for Americans are a
set of recommendations about smart
eating and physical activity for all
USDA US Dept. of Agriculture
 HHS Dept. of Health & Human Services
Make Smart choices from every food group
Find your balance between food & exercise
Get the most nutrition our of your calories
Making Smart Choices- choosing a
variety of foods from all the 5 food
MyPyramid-an interactive guide to healthful
eating and active living
~Focus on Fruits; Vary your veggies (go
colors); Calcium rich (lower fat choices);
Whole grains; Lean proteins (lean meats &
poultry…add more beans, nuts, & seeds);
Avoid ^fat, sugar, and sodium food…eat in
Balance Food and activity- teens should
get at least 60 minutes a day.
(Even eating right could put on excess wt
gain if you don’t burn the calories
Daily calories eaten should =calories burned
Lose Wt?...
3. Eat nutrient dense foods-more nutrients
it packs in to a given number of calories
10.4 Analyzing Your Nutritional Needs
Nutrition Labels
 Daily
Reference Values
(based on a 2,000
calorie diet)
– Total Fat… 65 g, 30% of your total energy intake
– Saturated fat… 10 g (no more than 20 g!!!!!)
– Cholesterol… 300mg
– Total Carbohydrate… 300g, 60% of total energy
– Dietary fiber… 25g
– Protein… 50g, 10% of total energy intake
– Sodium… 2400 mg (Try to stay below this!!!!)
Nutrition Label
*The label tells you
about the
nutritional value
and ingredients
• Name of product
• Serving size
• Name/address of
• Ingredients
• Nutrition Facts
Ingredient List- appear on the label in descending
order by weight. The ingredient making up the
largest share of the weight comes first.
Food Additives- substances added to food to
produce a desired effect
~keep foods safe for a longer time (preservative)
~boost nutrient content
~improve taste, texture, or appearance
Nutritional Claims
Free- food contains none (fewer than 5 calories per serving)
Low- can eat regularly without exceeding Daily Limits (less
than 3 calories per serving)
Light- 1/3 fewer calories; ½ fat & sodium (some “Light”
may mean color)
High- provides at least 20% of the DV for vitamins,
minerals, protein, or fiber (“rich”)
Reduced-25% few calories or 25% nutrients
Good Source of- 10-19% of RDV (“contains, provides”)
Healthy- low in fat and saturated fats; limited amounts of
cholesterol and sodium …as well as provide 10% or more
DV of Vitamin A, C, Iron, Calcium, Fiber, or Protein
Organic – produced without the use of certain chemicals
What makes up a serving size?
Bread, Cereal, Rice and Pasta
– 1 slice of bread, 1 oz. of ready to eat cereal, ½ cup of
cooked cereal, ½ cup of rice or pasta
– ½ cup of chopped vegetables, cooked or raw; 1 cup of raw
leafy vegetables, ¾ cup of fresh vegetable juice
– 1 medium fruit; ½ cup of chopped, cooked or canned fruit;
¾ cup of fresh fruit juice
Milk, Yogurt and cheese
– 1 cup of milk or yogurt, 1 ½ oz. of natural cheese
Meat, poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts
– 2-3 oz. of cooked lean meat, poultry or fish; ½ cup of
cooked beans, 1 egg, or 2 Tbs. of peanut butter counts as
1 oz of lean meat
Sensible Snacks
Eating Right When Eating Out
Healthy snacks can
keep up your energy
and keep you from
over eating
Fresh fruits
Cut up veggies
String cheese
Bread sticks
Most menus have a
nutrient dense
item…tips to
• Watch portion size
• Pay attention to how
they are prepared
• Add fresh fruit &
• Go easy on
• Don’t drink your
10.4 Food Safety
Each year in the US, about 76 million Americans become ill
as a result food borne illnesses - FOOD POISIONING
contaminated with pathogens (bacteria)
E Coli
Symptoms – diarrhea, cramping, fever, nausea,
headache, vomiting, and exhaustion
*more severe for very young children and older
*Can be life-threatening
Treatment – seek medical attention when
symptoms are severe; milder symptoms- replace
fluids lost and eat easily digested meals
Clostridium botulinum
Found: widely distributed in nature: in soil and
water, on plants, and in intestinal tracts of
animals and fish. Grows only in little or no
Transmission: bacteria produces a toxin that
causes illness. Improperly canned foods, garlic in
oil, and vacuum-packaged and tightly wrapped
Symptoms: toxin affects the nervous system.
Symptoms usually appear within 18 to 36 hours,
but can sometimes appear within as few as 4
hours or as many as 8 days after eating; double
vision, droopy eyelids, trouble speaking and
swallowing, and difficulty breathing. Fatal in 3 to
10 days if not treated.
Escherichia coli O157:H7
Found: intestinal tracts of some mammals, raw
milk, unchlorinated water; one of several strains
of E. coli that can cause human illness.
Transmission: contaminated water, raw milk,
raw or rare ground beef, unpasteurized apple
juice or cider, uncooked fruits and vegetables;
Symptoms: diarrhea or bloody diarrhea,
abdominal cramps, nausea, and malaise; can
begin 2 to 5 days after food is eaten, lasting
about 8 days. Some, especially the very young,
have developed Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome
(HUS) that causes acute kidney failure. A similar
illness, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura
(TTP), may occur in older adults.
Salmonella (over 1600 types)
Found: intestinal tract and feces of animals;
Salmonella enteritidis in raw eggs.
Transmission: raw or undercooked eggs,
poultry, and meat; raw milk and dairy
products; seafood.
Symptoms: stomach pain, diarrhea, nausea,
chills, fever, and headache usually appear 6 to
48 hours after eating; may last 1 to 2 days.
30% of all food borne illness result from unsafe
food handling at home
•Shopping; pick up fresh and frozen foods last
•Get them home quickly/Freeze or refrigerate
•Watch out for bulging cans/dented
•Look at expiration dates and “use by” dates
•Wash fruits and veggies
•Clean utensils and surface areas with hot soapy
water-clean after each separate food prep
•Store leftovers in tightly seal containers in
refrigerator/eat quickly
•Mayo & Ketchup should be kept in refrig
•Rotate older canned or dried goods to front
foods long enough & at a high enough temp.
Eating Out Safely
 One
of the worst outbreaks ever in
this country was in 1992 when 450
people became severely sick and
some died due to contaminated
hamburgers (not cooked long
 FDA Regulations- ground meat be
cooked to 155˚
 Note: Eggs, even thought they have
a shell can be contaminated!!!