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Conference
Countering Drugs and Organized
Crime in the Baltic Region
Stockholm
1 June - 2005
Assessing Organized Crime
in the Baltic States: Latvia’s
Strategy
Andrejs Vilks
European Cities Against Drugs (ECAD)
Regional office in Latvia
Director
The Three Transformation Periods
in Latvia in the Recent 15 Years
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1990 -1993 – The period of recovery and
fixing of independence in Latvia
1994 -1998 – The period of
consolidation of independent Latvia
1999 – 2005 – The period of
development and incorporation in
international organizations of independent
Latvia
To These Periods Were
Characteristics
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The change of political regime
The recovery of constitution – Satversme
The renovation of legislation
The multiform of property
The shift form command - planned economy to
free market economy model
The institutional transformation of state and
regional administration
The pluralism of political parties
The development of new religious movements
and sects
The Necessary Level of Organization is
Never Characteristic to the Period of
Transformation and Changes
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The only thing that is organized and
evolutionized in transition period – that is
organized crime.
The development and consolidation of
organized crime is based on imperfection
of power legislation and economic system
The organized crime is one of premise of
society development
Organized Crime in the 21.Century
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The transnational problem
International problem
Dynamical problem
Material – technical problem
Global problem
The Organized Crime - Threat to Economic
Development: myth or reality? (1)
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Gross Domestic Product
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Total growth of life quality
level
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Foreign investments
The stability of financial
system and national currency
in Latvia
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Annual stable growth (6%-8% per
year)
The amount of cell phones
The amount of internet
connections
Purchase of automobile
The increase of inhabitants
savings
Rapid growth
Investment in to building, social
infrastructure, service sector
(long-term projects)
The low level of inflation
Sustained stability of lat (LVL)
The Organized Crime - Threat to Economic
Development: myth or reality? (2)
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The acting and recovering
of democratic state
administration institutions
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Multi-party political
system
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NGO sector
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Parliament and Cabinet of
Ministers
Court system institutions
Foundation of Satversme Court
Single-party system elimination
Pluralism of political parties
Regular creation of new parties
NGO ‘s nets rapid development
NGO material and financial
foundation
Creation and activity of radical
NGO
Developed democracy premise of organized crime
intervention
Organized Crime and Criminal
Group Influence Over Public
(Social) Processes
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Criminalization of politics
Uncontrollability of economic system and
growth of shadow economy
Rapid distribution in the financial system
capital acquired illegally
Deformation of communication system
Ccriminalization and asocialization of
societies social norms and values
Influence of the Organized Criminal
Structures to Public-Political
Processes
Material – financial
sub-system
Organized
(transnational) criminal
structures
The influence
of society
Society’s regulation
sub-system
Sub-system of
values and
social norms
Public
administration
sphere
Communicative
sub-system
The Concept of Organized Crime
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Alternative, existing parallel state
formations phenomenon, that form from
illegal organized and activities from other
structures with the aim to get or realize
illegal income
The Elements of Organized Crime
SUBJECT
OBJECT
Transnational
organized
crime and
other groups
Political system
Economic
system
Legal system
Social system
Criminal
action
FORMAL AND
INFORMAL
STRUCTURES
Political
Economic
Financial
Legal
Administrativeorganizing
CAUSING FACTORS OF ORGANIZED CRIME
Social
disorganization
Corruption
Low criminal-legal
activity
High potential of
criminogenity
The Structure of Organized Crime
Elite group
(Bosses of
criminal world)
Management group
(„Brain center” of
criminal world)
Administration function
executive group
Security assure group
Pocket thieves
Illegal bankers
Sharpie
Car stealers
Weaponry illegal traders
Representatives of drug business
Representatives of porno business
Representatives of prostitution sphere
Hit-men
The Functional Construction of Organized Criminal
Structures
Criminal
area
Gambling
Terrorism
Theft,
robbery
Prostitution
Little
Bosses
Brain
Alcohol and drug
trade
Racketeering
LEADER
Bribing,
relations with
administration
and state
Lawyer
Money laundry
center
Managers
Consultant
Shadow
area
Legal
business
Entrepreneurship
The Control Model of Organized
Crime
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Indications and functional criterion of organized
crime
Existing of organized criminal groups (OCG)
OCG acts secretly and illegally
Territorial integrity
Administration structures of OCG
Neutralizing social control and law protection activities
(prospecting and counterespionage)
Financial structures of OCG
Amalgamate with legal structures (integrating in social,
political and economic structures)
Specific ideology and philosophy of OCG
Transnational relations and international sphere of
operation
Aim – get maximal unregulated (illegal) profit
Operation Spheres of Transnational
Organized Criminal Groupings
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Drug business industry
Organization of human trafficking and illegal migration
The development of sexual industry
The development of human body part and tissues trade
and biomedicine
Car theft and smuggling
Modified racketeering
Smuggling and illegal circulation of arms, ammo and
explosives
Terrorism
Illegal circulation of nuclear and weapons of mass
destruction (WMD)
Organization and controlling of gambling business
Armed attack to traffic transference, including sea
pirates
Operation Spheres of Transnational
Organized Criminal Groupings (2)
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Controlling of transit business sphere
Cyber technology criminalization
Fraudulence in crediting and insurance
Smuggling or theft of cultural objects and
artwork
Copyright objects illegal using, selling and
copying
Exotic animal and plant contraband
Radioactive and other hazardous waist
gathering, storing un destroying
Money laundering
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The Factors of Globalization that
Determines Development of Drug
Criminality and Organized Crime
Sharp extension a spectrum of economic
attitudes and market sphere, including in
criminal a context
Free movement of the people and labour
through borders - increase scale of the
organized legal and illegal migration
Formation of the legal and illegal structures
which are carrying out moving of people through
border
Optimization and intensification of information
systems and channels of the information
transferring, created and used for criminal
purposes
The Factors of Globalization that
Determines Development of Drug
Criminality and Organized Crime (2)
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Increase in a revolution of financial resources
and securities market, optimization of a financial
system
Transformation of world, regional and ethnic
values with the extremely liberal attitude to drugs
Escalation of a pressure and conflicts between
various cultures and systems of values
Development and strengthening of system of the
transnational organized crime and the integrated
terrorist organizations
TRANSFORMATION OF THE STRUCTURES CONNECTED DRUG
BUSINESS ACCORDING TO MODERN POLITICAL, ECONOMIC,
SOCIAL, LEGAL BOTH TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGES AND
DEVELOPMENT OF THE GIVEN SPHERES
STRENGTHENING
AND
DEVELOPMENTIN
G OF ORGANIZED
TRANSNATIONAL
STRUCTURES OF
THE DRUG
CRIMINALITY
OCURRENCE
POLITICAL,
ECONOMIC,
LEGAL AND
OTHER
STRUCTURES
AND
REPRESENTATI
VES IN PLANK
BEDS DRUG
CRIMINAL
BUSINESS
MINIMIZATION
OF POLITICAL,
ECONOMIC,
LEGAL AND
OTHER
OPPORTUNITIES
(POTENTIAL) IN
PREVENTION
DRUG OF
UNDERWORLD
SUPERHIGH INCOMES OF STRUCTURES, CONNECTED WITH DRUG
BUSINESS, CAPITALIZATION OF THE CRIMINAL INCOMES
CONSEQUENCE???????
SPECIFIC FACTORS, CAUSING ESCALATION
DRUG CRIMINALITY IN MODERN CONDITIONS
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Amplification of transparency of borders in the
EU and in the countries of the Baltic region
Insufficient technical and intellectual
maintenance of the control of borders
Increase in a stream international transit a cargo
and the goods including with drugs and
precursors
Expansion of the network and channels of transit
of drugs with use of legal ways
Creation and perfection of structures of safety
and counter prospecting divisions in national
transnational criminal formations
SPECIFIC FACTORS, CAUSING ESCALATION
DRUG CRIMINALITY IN MODERN
CONDITIONS(2)
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Development of the mechanism of conspiracy
and leg ended deliveries
Involving in sphere of consumption of drugs of
new consumers, perfection of the mechanism of
wholesale realization of drugs
Insufficient operative positions of structures of
safety and the law and order, especially their
operative divisions, in national transnational
criminal to environment
Development and strengthening of narcotic
subculture and corresponding social norms
MODERN LINES OF ESCALATION
DRUG CRIMINALITY (1)
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Increase in the areas cultured drug cultures
Increase in volume received and synthesized
narcotic and psychoactive substances
Development and expansion of network of the
laboratories (the centres, shops, constructor and
research bureaux, etc.) on processing of precursors
and to synthesizing narcotic or psychoactive
substances
Modernization of technologies on manufacturing
narcotic and psychoactive means with attraction
chemical pharmacists, experts in narcology, etc.
experts and scientists
MODERN LINES OF ESCALATION
DRUG CRIMINALITY (2)
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Manufacturing, synthesizing and approbation
hyperactive narcotics
Change of structure consumed and received
narcotics
Becoming and strengthening system of transit of
the narcotics both constant their transformation
and adaptation to constantly varying conditions
and self-improvement
Expansion of contingent of the consumers and
suppliers of narcotic means - in regional and
demographic aspect
Regularity of Struggle Against
Transnational Organized Crime in
Global Conditions (1)
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In conditions of social progress and globalization
endanger to individuals, society and state
security did not reduce
Extension of society and individuals possibilities,
increase of potential of power over environment
accelerate threat size over humanity
The increase of society differentiation, social
stratification and growth of state organization
complexity in the globalization promote drastic
increase of danger potential and form
Regularity of Struggle Against
Transnational Organized Crime in
Global Conditions(2)
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Forms of criminal danger in current
circumstances are not independent, but they
modify along with the development of socialpolitical and economic processes
Security systems of state and social
organizations are not suitable with their
structure (state, society, company) development
level
Ignorance of security system and problem in
globalization circumstances determines state,
nation and society destruction and fall possibility
Risk Factor Groups of Globalization
Security Threats
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Material, intellectual and mental poverty
Ethnic and religious conflicts
Scantiness of vital resources
Information technology and system unprotection
Threat to ecological environment
Extension of weapons of mass destruction
(WMD)
Threats from international terrorist groups and
transnational organized crime
Determinants of Threat of Global
Transnational Organized Crime in
Latvia
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Geopolitical location
Insufficient funding of nature and
energetic resources
Situation in industry and service field
Ethnic structure and religious belonging of
population
Social protection and employment of
population
Processes of crisis and destabilization
The Structure of Organized
Drug Criminal Group
Groups legal leaders „roof”
Security and
informative
service
International partners
Economical and
planing service
Leader of criminal structure
Engineertechnical
structure
Drug
transporting
and obtaining
group
Transit traffic
ensure group
Experimentingresearch and
constructing
structure
Criminal
income
legalizing
structure
Drug lab
Transit trafic
group
Wholesellers
Drug using
places
Drug execute
groups
Cients
Security
structures
Brigadiers
Common
„cooker”
Drug holders
Client recruiters
Retail traders
CLIENTS
The Structure of Organized
Criminal Group, which Involved in
Prostitution
Groups legal leaders „roof”
International partners
Businessmen,
tourists from
foreign countries
Regional criminal
structure
Brigadier
Prostitutes, witch
serves foreign clients
Coordinator service
Transport service at
hotels
Restaurants, bars
and other
entertainment places
Agent and flats for
rent
Illegal public houses
Public places
Brigades
(groups of
prostitutes)
Brigadier
8-10
prosti
tutes
Recru
iting
agent
Security service
Medicine structure
and doctors
Brigadier
8-10
prosti
tutes
Recru
iting
agent
Beauty and massage
saloons
Sauna